Friday, 14 October 2016



Topic Tourist place in Bihar
Rajgir just 15 kms from Nalanda is located the complex of temples and monasteries. The place is called Rajgir. It is one of the most important tourist places in India. Being located in a valley, Rajgir is a very scenic place. The small hill grit town is covered with lush green forest which add to the beauty of the place. Rajgir was the capital of the Magadh Mahajanpad (State) when Patliputra was not formed. In those days it was called Rajgrih. Rajgir or Rajgrih means the home of Royalty. This place has been associated with Lord Buddha and Buddhism. Buddha not only spent many years in Rajgir but also delivered sermons here and proselytized emperor Bimbisar at the Griddhakoota hill. The Jivekarmavan monastery was the favorite residence for Buddha. Even Bimbisar gave Venuvan Vihar to Buddha for his residence. It is said that it was at Rajgir that physician treated Buddha, Jivak after he was injured by his cousin Devdatta.The teachings of Buddha was penned down at Rajgir and it was also the venue for the first Buddhist Council. Today Rajgir has come up as one of the most important pilgrimage for the Buddhist.Rajgir also has some very beautiful Hindu and Jain temples which attracts Hindus and Jains also to the place. Not only as a place for worship, Rajgir has come up as health and winter resort with its warm water ponds. These ponds are said to contain some medicinal properties which help in the cure of many skin diseases. The added attraction of Rajgir is the Ropeway which takes you uphill to the Shanti Stupa and Monasteries built by the Japanese Devotees on top of the Ratnagiri hills.

District of Bihar

Topic Districts of Bihar
Bihar has 38 Districts. Araria , Arwal, Aurangabad , Banka , Begusarai, Bhabhua, Bhagalpur, Bhojpur, Buxar, Darbhanga, East Champaran, Gaya , Gopalganj, Jamui, Jehanabad, Katihar, Khagaria, Kishanganj, Lakhisarai, Madhepur, Madhubani, Nalanda, Muzaffarpur, Munger, Nawada, Patna , Purnia, Rohtas, Saharsa, Samastipur, Saran, Sheohar, Shiekhpura, Sitamarhi, Siwan, Supaul, Vaishali, West Champaran


Topic About Bihar
bihar Directory

Agriculture of Bihar

Topic Agriculture of Bihar
Agriculture is the key to the overall development of the State economy. Agriculture is the backbone of Bihar's economy 81% of workforce and generating nearly 42% of the State Domestic Product. The percentage of population employed in agriculture production system in Bihar is estimated to 81%, which s much higher than the national average. Nearly 42 per cent of GDP of the state (2004-05) has been from agriculture sector (including forestry and fishing). The agriculture production can only be increased to some extent through enhanced cropping intensity, change in cropping pattern, improvement in seeds of high yielding varieties, cultivation practices and with the availability of better post harvest technology etc. State Govt. is trying to re-orient agriculture through diversification policy and other measures. Visit

Ancient Background of Bihar

Topic Ancient Background of Bihar
A part of Bihar was called "Magadha" in ancient times. From Magadha arose two religions, Jainism and Buddhism. The greatest Indian empire, the Maurya empire, originated from Magadha, with its capital at Patliputra (modern Patna) in 325 BC. The Mauryan Emperor, Ashoka, who was born in Patliputra ( Patna ) is believed to be one of the greatest rulers in the history of India and the world. After seeing all the carnage that war causes, he was placed on the path of Lord Buddha by his Brahmin spiritual guide Manjushri.[30][31] According to indologist A.L. Basham, the author of the book The Wonder that was India, visit

Madhubani Paitings

Topic Arts and Crafts
The origins of Madhubani painting or Mithila Painting are shrouded in antiquity. Tradition states that this style of painting originated at the time of the Ramayana, when King Janak commissioned artists to do paintings at the time of marriage of his daughter, Sita, to Lord Ram. Madhubani painting has been done traditionally by the women of villages around the present town of Madhubani (the literal meaning of which is forests of honey) and other areas of Mithila. The painting was traditionally done on freshly plastered mud wall of huts, but now it is also done on cloth, hand-made paper and canvas. As Madhubani painting has remained confined to a compact geographical area and the skills have been passed on through centuries, the content and the style have largely remained the same. Madhubani paintings also use two dimensional imagery, and the colors used are derived from plants. Ochre and lampblack are also used for reddish brown and black respectively. Madhubani paintings mostly depict nature and Hindu religious motifs, and the themes generally revolve around Hindu deities like Krishna, Ram, Shiva, Durga, Lakshmi, and Saraswati. Natural objects like the sun, the moon, and religious plants like tulsi are also widely painted, along with scenes from the royal court and social events like weddings. Generally no space is left empty; the gaps are filled by paintings of flowers, animals, birds, and even geometric designs. Objects depicted in the walls of kohabar ghar (where newly wed couple see each other in the first night) are symbols of sexual pleasure and procreation. Traditionally, painting was one of the skills that was passed down from generation to generation in the families of the Mithila Region, mainly by women.[1] The painting was usually done on walls during festivals, religious events, and other milestones of the life-cycle such as birth, Upanayanam (sacred thread ceremony), and marriage. Sources

Litti Chokha

Topic Cuisine
Powdered baked gram is mixed with chopped onions,green chillies,lemon juice,coriander leaves. This mixture is filled inside atta and either barbecued over coal or deep fried with oil. Best accompanied with Ghee,Curd and Chokha.

Cinema in Bihar

Topic Cinema
Bihar has a robust cinema industry for the Bhojpuri language. There are some small Maithili, Angika and Magadhi film industry. First Bhojpuri Film was Ganga Jamuna released in 1961. "Lagi nahin chute ram" was the all-time superhit Bhojpuri film which was released against "Mugle Azam" but was a superhit in all the eastern and northern sector. Bollywood's Nadiya Ke Paar is among the most famous Bhojpuri language movie. The first Maithili movie was Kanyadan released in 1965,[100] of which a significant portion was made in the Maithili language. Bhaiyaa a Magadhi film was released in 1961.[101] Bhojpuri's history begins in 1962 with the well-received film Ganga Maiyya Tohe Piyari Chadhaibo ("Mother Ganges, I will offer you a yellow sari"), which was directed by Kundan Kumar. Throughout the following decades, films were produced only in fits and starts. Films such as Bidesiya ("Foreigner," 1963, directed by S. N. Tripathi) and Ganga ("Ganges," 1965, directed by Kundan Kumar) were profitable and popular, but in general Bhojpuri films were not commonly produced in the 1960s and 1970s.

Patna University

Topic Education
Patna University is the 7th oldest University of the Indian subcontinent, which was established in the year 1917 to cater to the growing needs of higher education of Bihar, Orissa and Nepal. The history of this University is closely linked with the history of modern Bihar – the saga of her educational, cultural, political and economic growth. It is a hallmark in the annals of the progress of the State in particular and region in general. It is the only teaching and residential university in the populous State of Bihar. It also has a truly national character which transcends the linguistic, cultural and political boundaries. The outstanding personalities involved in top administrative positions, well qualified learned teachers and students have largely contributed towards its rich academic heritage. Visit University Website

Magadh University

Topic Education
Magadh University was established on 01 March, 1962.It is the largest University of Bihar situated in a sprawling Campus of 460 Acres Of Land enjoying the spiritual breeze of the Bodhi Tree which enlightened Lord Buddha.Visit University website

University List of Bihar

Topic Education
1. Babasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar Bihar University, Muzaffarpur, Bihar
2. Bhupendra Narayan Mandal University, Madhepura, Bihar
3. Bihar Yoga Bharati (Deemed University), Ganga Darshan Fort Munger Bihar
4. BRA Bihar University, Muzaffarpur, Bihar
5. Indira Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences, Sheikhpura Patna, Bihar
6. Jai Prakash Vishwavidyalaya Chapra, Bihar
7. Kameshwar Singh Darbhanga Sanskrit University Kameshwar Nagar Darbhnaga, Bihar
8. Lalit Narayan Mithila University Darbhanga, Bihar
9. Magadh University Bodh Gaya, Bihar
10. Maulana Mazharul Haque Arabic and Persian University, Patna
11. Nalanda Open University Reshmi Complex, 7th Floor Kidwaipuri Patna, Bihar
12. Patna University, Patna, Bihar
13. Rajendra Agricultural University, Pusa, Samastipur, Bihar
14. Tilka Manjhi Bhagalpur University Bhagalpur, Bihar
15. Veer Kunwar Singh University Arrah, Bihar

Government Jobs

Topic Refrences
Visit for Governement Jobs.

Jobs from Bihar Niyukti

Topic About Bihar
visit for jobs in Private sector

Bihar - Wikipedia

Topic Refrences

The First President of India

Topic Important person of Bihar
Dr. Rajendra Prasad (Hindi: डा॰ राजेन्द्र प्रसाद) (3 December 1884 – 28 February 1963) was the youngest son of Mahadev Sahay from the village Ziradei, then the Saran district of Bihar. Dr. Prasad is considered to be one of the architects of the Indian Republic, having drafted its first constitution and serving as the first president of India. During the independence movement, he left his law work and joined the Congress Party, playing a prominent role in the Indian Independence Movement. He served as the president of the Constituent Assembly that drafted the first constitution of the Republic, which lasted from 1948 to 1950. He also briefly served as a cabinet minister in the first Government of the Indian Republic. Dr. Rajendra Prasad, son of Mahadev Sahai, was born in Zeradei village, in the Saran district of Bihar, on 3 December 1884. He was the youngest in a large family, & was close to his mother and eldest brother. He was known as "Rajen" to his family and friends. His father, Mahadev Sahay, was a scholar of both the Persian and Sanskrit languages, while his mother, Kamleshwari Devi, was a religious woman. Zeradei's population was diverse, with both Muslims and Hindus living in relative harmony. When Rajendra Prasad was five years old, his parents put him under a Mawlawi, an accomplished Muslim scholar, to learn the Persian language, followed by Hindi and arithmetic. After the completion of traditional elementary education, Rajendra Prasad was sent to the Chhapra District School. At the age of 12, Rajendra Prasad was married to Rajavanshi Devi. He, along with his elder brother Mahendra Prasad, then went on to study at T.K. Ghosh's Academy in Patna. Since childhood, Rajendra Prasad was a brilliant student. He placed first in the entrance examination to the University of Calcutta and was awarded Rs.30 per month as a scholarship. In 1902, Rajendra Prasad joined the Presidency College. He was initially a student of science and his teachers included Jagadish Chandra Bose and Prafulla Chandra Roy. Later he decided to focus on the arts. Prasad lived with his brother in the Eden Hindu Hostel. A plaque still commemorates his stay in that room. Dr. Rajendra Prasad was instrumental in the formation of the Bihari Students' Conference in 1908. It was the first organization of its kind in the whole of India, which would later produce many of the important figures of Bihar. In 1915, Rajendra Prasad graduated with a Masters in Law, passing his examination with honors. He then went on to complete his Doctorate in Law.

Download Contact Details

Topic Refrences
Download Contact Details and Email of DM,SP of Bihar and Website of Bihar Government

List of Sub Division and Block

Topic Refrences
Download List of Sub Division and Block of Bihar

Rivers & Waterfalls of Bihar

Topic Rivers of Bihar
Rivers of Bihar Ganga, Ghaghra, Gandak, Burhi Gandak , Baghmati, Kamla, Koshi, Son, Punpun, Falgu, Sakari, Karmanasa
Waterfalls in Bihar
Sukhladari waterfalls, Parasdih Waterfalls, tamasin Waterfalls, Gursindhu Waterfalls, Maludah Waterfalls, Keridah Waterfalls, Goa Waterfalls, Kakolat Waterfalls(Nawada)

University of Bihar

Topic Education
Patna University, patna(1917), Baba Saheb Bhim Rao Ambedkar University, Muzzaffarpur(1952), Tilak Manjhi University, Bhagalpur(1960), Kameshwar singh Darbhanga Sanskrit University, Darbhanga(1961), Magadh University, Bodh Gaya(1962), Rajendra Agriculture University , Pusa, Samastipur(1970), Lalit Narayan Mithila University, Darbhanga(1972), Indira Gandhi Open University, Regional Center, Patna, Jaiprakash University,chhapra(1990), Bhupendra Narayan Mandal , University, Madhepura(1991), Kunwar Singh University , Ara(Bhojpur)(1992), Nalanda Open University(1988), Maula Majrul Haq Arabi and Farsi University,patna(1998)

Durga Puja

Topic Festivals
Durga Puja (pronounced [ˈd̪ʊɾga 'puja], Bengali: দুর্গা পূজাOriya: ଦୁର୍ଗା ପୂଜା‘Worship of Durga’), also referred to as Durgotsab (Bengali: দুর্গোৎসব, ‘Festival of Durga’), is an annual Hindu festival in South Asia that celebrates worship of the Hindu goddess Durga. It refers to all the six days observed as Mahalaya, Shashthi , Maha Saptami, Maha Ashtami, Maha Nabami and Bijoya Dashami. The dates of Durga Puja celebrations are set according to the traditional Hindu calendar and the fortnight corresponding to the festival is called Debi Pokkho (Bengali:দেবী পক্ষ , ‘Fortnight of the Goddess’). Debi Pokkho is preceded by Mahalaya (Bengali: মহালয়া), the last day of the previous fortnight Pitri Pokkho (Bengali: পিতৃ পক্ষ, ‘Fortnight of the Forefathers’), and is ended on Kojagori Lokkhi Puja (Bengali: কোজাগরী লক্ষ্মী পূজা, ‘Worship of Goddess Lakshmi on Kojagori Full Moon Night’).
Durga Puja is widely celebrated in the Indian states of West Bengal, Assam, Jharkhand, Orissa and Tripura where it is a five-day annual holiday.In Tripura which has a majority of Bengali Hindus it is the Biggest festival of the year. Not only it is the biggest Hindu festival celebrated throughout the State, but it is also the most significant socio-cultural event in Bengali society. Apart from eastern India, Durga Puja is also celebrated in Delhi, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Maharashtra, Gujarat, Punjab, Kashmir, Karnataka and Kerala. Durga Puja is also celebrated as a major festival in Nepal and in Bangladesh where 10% population are Hindu. Nowadays, many diaspora Bengali cultural organizations arrange for Durgotsab in countries such as the United States, United Kingdom, Australia, Germany, France, and Kuwait, among others. In 2006, a grand Durga Puja ceremony was held in the Great Court of the British Museum.[1]
The prominence of Durga Puja increased gradually during the British Raj in Bengal. After the Hindu reformists resemble Durga with India, she had become an icon for the Indian independence movement. In the first quarter of the 20th century, the tradition of Baroyari or Community Puja was popularised due to this. After independence, Durga Puja became one of the largest celebrated festivals in the whole world.
Durga Puja includes the worships of Shiva, Lakshmi, Ganesha, Saraswati and Kartikeya. Modern traditions have come to include the display of decorated pandals and artistically depicted idols of Durga, exchange of Bijoya Greetings and publication of Puja Annuals.
durga puja- Bihar Directory

Jayaprakash Narayan

Topic Important person of Bihar
Jayaprakash Narayan (Devanāgarī: जयप्रकाश नारायण; October 11, 1902 - October 8, 1979), widely known as JP or loknayak (leader of the masses), was an Indian independence activist and political leader, remembered especially for leading the opposition to Indira Gandhi in the 1970s and for giving a call for peaceful Total Revolution. His biography, Jayaprakash, was written by his nationalist friend and an eminent writer of Hindi literature, Ramavriksha Benipuri. In 1998, he was posthumously awarded the Bharat Ratna, India's highest civilian award, in recognition of his social work. Other awards include the Magsaysay award for Public Service in 1965. The airport of Patna is also named after him.

Diwali or Deepawali

Topic Festivals
Diwali (also spelt Divali in other countries) or Deepavali (Sanskrit: दीपावली Dīpāvali, Tamil: தீபாவளி, Nepali: दीपावली or तिहार, Hindi: दिवाली, Gujarati: દિવાળી, Marathi: दिवाळी, Kannada: ದೀಪಾವಳಿ, Konkani: धाकली दिवाळी, Malayalam: ദീപാവലി, Oriya: ଦୀପାବଳୀ, Punjabi: ਦਿਵਾਲੀ, Telugu: దీపావళి, Urdu: دیوالی) is popularly known as the Festival of Lights. It is an important five-day festival in Hinduism, Sikhism and Jainism, occurring between mid-October and mid-November. Diwali is an official holiday in India, [1] Guyana, Trinidad & Tobago, Mauritius, Malaysia, Nepal, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Myanmar , Fiji and Surinam. The name Diwali is itself a contraction of the word Deepavali (दीपावली Dīpāvali), which translates into row of lamps (in Sanskrit)[2]. Diwali involves the lighting of small clay lamps (diyas) (or Deep in Sanskrit: दीप) filled with oil to signify the triumph of good over evil. During Diwali celebrants wear new clothes and share sweets and snacks with family members and friends. Some Indian business communities begin the financial year on the first day of Diwali, hoping for prosperity the following year. In Hinduism, Diwali marks the return of Lord Rama to his kingdom of Ayodhya after defeating (the demon king) Ravana, the ruler of Lanka, in the epic Ramayana. It also celebrates the slaying of the demon king Narakasura by Lord Krishna. Both signify the victory of good over evil. In Jainism, Diwali marks the attainment of moksha by Mahavira in 527 BC.[3][4] In Sikhism, Diwali commemorates the return of Guru Har Gobind Ji to Amritsar after freeing 52 Hindu kings imprisoned in Fort Gwalior by Emperor Jahangir; the people lit candles and diyas to celebrate his return. This is the reason Sikhs also refer to Diwali as Bandi Chhorh Divas, "the day of release of detainees". Diwali is considered a national festival in India and Nepal. They never start Dewali in debt. Sources Wikipedia

Happy Diwali - Maa Laxmi - Bihar Information Directory

Diwali or Deepawali

Topic Festivals
Diwali (also spelled Divali in other countries) or Deepavali is popularly known as the festival of lights. It is an important five-day festival in Hinduism, Sikhism and Jainism, occurring between mid-October and mid-November. For most Hindus and Indians, Diwali is the most important festival of the year and is celebrated with families performing traditional activities together in their homes. Deepavali is an official holiday in India, Guyana, Trinidad & Tobago, Mauritius, Malaysia, Nepal, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Myanmar , Fiji , and Suriname. The name Diwali is itself a contraction of the word Deepavali (Sanskrit: दीपावली Dīpāvali), which translates into row of lamps. Diwali involves the lighting of small clay lamps (diyas) (or Deep in Sanskrit: दीप) filled with oil to signify the triumph of good over evil. During Diwali celebrants wear new clothes and share sweets and snacks with family members and friends. Some Indian business communities begin the financial year on the first day of Diwali, hoping for prosperity the following year. In Jainism, Diwali marks the attainment of moksha by Mahavira in 527 BC. In Sikhism, Deepavali commemorates the return of Guru Har Gobind Ji to Amritsar after freeing 52 Hindu kings imprisoned in Fort Gwalior by Emperor Jahangir; the people lit candles and diyas to celebrate his return. This is the reason Sikhs also refer to Deepavali as Bandi Chhorh Divas, "the day of release of detainees". Deepavali is considered a national festival in India and Nepal.

Panchayati Raj in Bihar

Topic Census
I need census data on Panchayati raj institution in Bihar before implementing the 50% women rservation and after that.

About Republic Day

Topic Festivals
26th January 1950 is one of the most important days in Indian history as it was on this day the constitution of India came into force and India became a truly sovereign state. In this day India became a totally republican unit. The country finally realized the dream of Mahatma Gandhi and the numerous freedom fighters who, fought for and sacrificed their lives for the Independence of their country. So, the 26th of January was decreed a national holiday and has been recognized and celebrated as the Republic Day of India, ever since.

Population and Growth Rate

Topic Census
At 00.00 hours of 1st March, 2001, the state of Bihar, with an area of 94,163 sq kms approximately, had a population of 8,28,78,796 persons. Till 1991 Census, the composite state of Bihar was the second most populous state in the country (containing slightly more than 10% of the country’s population), next only to Uttar Pradesh. However, after bifurcation of the state of Bihar and creation of the new state of Jharkhand, the rank of Bihar among the states of India has slipped down to third, the states of Uttar Pradesh and Maharashtra occupying the first and the second position respectively.

HOLI - Festival of Colours

Topic Festivals
Holi, or Holli (Sanskrit: होली), is a spring religious festival celebrated by Hindus and Sikhs. It is primarily observed in India, Nepal, Sri Lanka, and countries with large Indic diaspora populations, such as Suriname, Guyana, South Africa, Trinidad, United Kingdom, United States, Mauritius, and Fiji. In West Bengal and Orissa of India it is known as Dolyatra (Doul Jatra) or Basanta-Utsav ("spring festival"). The most celebrated Holi is that of the Braj region, in locations connected to the god Krishna: Mathura, Vrindavan, Nandagaon, and Barsana. These places have become tourist destinations during the festive season of Holi, which lasts here to up to sixteen days.Holi is celebrated at the end of the winter season on the last full moon day of the lunar month Phalguna (February/March), (Phalgun Purnima), which usually falls in the later part of February or March.

Census of India 2011

Topic Census
भारत की 15वीं जनगणना के पहले ��?र दूसरे चरण के प�?रारंभिक आंकड़े ग�?र�?वार को दिल�?ली में जारी कि�? ग�?। दिल�?ली में भारत के जनगणना आय�?क�?त सी चंद�?रमौली ने बताया कि प�?रारंभिक आंकड़ो के अन�?सार भारत की मौजूदा आबादी �?क अरब 21 करोड़ है। इनमें 62 करोड़ प�?र�?ष ��?र 58 करोड़ महिला�?ं हैं।
अब भारत की आबादी अमरीका, इंडोनेशिया, ब�?राज़ील, पाकिस�?तान, बांग�?लादेश ��?र जापान की क�?ल आबादी के बराबर है.
द�?निया के सबसे ज़�?यादा आबादी वाले देश चीन ��?र भारत के बीच का फासला भी घटा है. 2001 में 23.8 करोड़ से 2011 में अब ये 13 करोड़ हो गया है.त दस वर�?षों में भारत की जनसंख�?या में 17.6 प�?रतिशत बढ़ोतरी ह�?ई है. इस दौरान क�?ल जनसंख�?या में 18 करोड़ का इज़ाफ़ा ह�?आ है.
15वीं जनसंख�?या के प�?रारंभिक आंकड़ों के म�?ताबिक़ पिछले दस वर�?षों में भारत का क�?ल लिंगान�?पात 933 से बढ़कर 940 हो गया है, जो वर�?ष 1961 के बाद सर�?वाधिक है.
लेकिन बच�?चों का लिंगान�?पात 927 से घटकर 914 हो गया है. ये स�?वतंत�?र भारत का सबसे निचला स�?तर है.
आंकड़ों के म�?ताबिक साल 2001 में क�?ल जनसंख�?या का करीब 16 फीसदी बच�?चे थे, लेकिन साल 2011 में ये कम होकर करीब 13 फीसदी हैं.
पंद�?रहवी जनसंख�?या के प�?रारंभिक आंकड़ों के म�?ताबिक भारत में साक�?षरता की दर साल 2001 के म�?काबले करीब 10 फीसदी बढ़ी है.
भारत में अब 82.1 फीसदी प�?र�?ष ��?र 65.5 फीसदी महिला�?ं साक�?षर हैं. जनगणना आय�?क�?त ने बताया कि पिछले दस वर�?षों में ज़�?यादा महिला�?ं (5 फीसदी) साक�?षर ह�?ई हैं.
जनसंख�?या के आधार पर भारत की राजधानी में प�?रति वर�?ग किलोमीटर सबसे ज़�?यादा आबादी, 11,297 लोग रहते हैं.
उत�?तर प�?रदेश भारत का सबसे बड़ा राज�?य है. इसकी आबादी ब�?राज़ील देश से भी ज़�?यादा है.

India Census 2011- Population

Topic Census
Ministry of Home affairs, Government of India has released the provisional data of the census 2011. According to the release by the ministry our country has population of 1210.19 million (63.72 million males and 586.46 million females). Percentage wise there are 51.54 percent males and 48.46 percent females. These provisional figures of Census 2011 were released in New Delhi by Union Home Secretary Shri G.K.Pillai and RGI Shri C. Chandramouli.
Salient features of the provisional census data are following:
Percentage of literate persons went up from 64.83 per cent in 2001 to 74.04 in 2011.
Population Growth of 181 million during the decade 2001-2011.
For the first time since 1911-21 the growth in population is less than previous decade.
Uttar Pradesh (199.5 million) tops the list with highest population which is followed by Maharashtra with 112 million.
Decadal growth rate of populous states has declined

- Uttar Pradesh (25.85% to 20.09%)
- Maharashtra (22.73% to 15.99%)
- Bihar (28.62% to 25.07%)
- West Bengal (17.77 % to 13.93%)
- Andhra Pradesh (14.59% to 11.10%)
- Madhya Pradesh (24.26% to 20.30%)
Population of Children in the age-group 0-6 is 158.8 million (-5 million since 2001)

Sex ratio,Literacy

Topic Census
Sex ratio of BIHAR , literacy in 2011 census.

History of Bihar

Topic Ancient Background of Bihar
The greatest Indian empire, the Mauryan empire, originated from Magadha in 325 BC, it was started by Chandragupta Maurya who was born in Magadha, and had its capital at Patliputra (modern Patna). The Mauryan Emperor, Ashoka, who was born in Patliputra (Patna) is believed to be one of the greatest rulers in the history of India and the world. According to indologist A.L. Basham, the author of the book The Wonder that was India,
“ The age in which true history appeared in India was one of great intellectual and spiritual ferment. Mystics and sophists of all kinds roamed through the Ganges Valley, all advocating some form of mental discipline and asceticism as a means to salvation; but the age of the Buddha, when many of the best minds were abandoning their homes and professions for a life of asceticism, was also a time of advance in commerce and politics. It produced not only philosophers and ascetics, but also merchant princes and men of action. �?

Bihar remained an important place of power, culture and education during the next one thousand years. The Gupta Empire, which again originated from Magadha in 240 CE, is referred to as the Golden Age of India in science, mathematics, astronomy, religion and Indian philosophy. The peace and prosperity created under leadership of Guptas enabled the pursuit of scientific and artistic endeavors. Historians place the Gupta dynasty alongside with the Han Dynasty, Tang Dynasty and Roman Empire as a model of a classical civilization. The capital of Gupta empire was Pataliputra, present day Patna. The Vikramshila and Nalanda universities were among the oldest and best centres of education in ancient India. Some writers believe the period between the 400 CE and 1000 CE saw gains by Hinduism at the expense of Buddhism. The Hindu kings gave much grants to the Buddhist monks for building Brahmaviharas. A National Geographic edition reads, "The essential tenets of Buddhism and Hinduism arose from similar ideas best described in the Upanishads, a set of Hindu treatises set down in India largely between the eighth and fourth centuries B.C."
Kalidasa's Sanskrit play Abhijñānaśākuntala is one of the Legacy of the Gupta Empire.

The Buddhism of Magadha was swept away by the Muslim invasion under Muhammad Bin Bakhtiar Khilji, during which many of the viharas and the famed universities of Nalanda and Vikramshila were destroyed, and thousands of Buddhist monks were massacred in 12th century CE In the years 1553–56 Pashtun dynasty ruler 'Adil Shah' took the reigns of North-India and made 'Chunar' his capital. He deputed 'Hemu' the Hindu General, also known as 'Hemu Vikramaditya' as his Prime Minister and Chief-of-Army. Hemu fought and won 22 battles continuously against Afghan rebels and Akbar's forces at Agra and Delhi and established 'Hindu Raj' in Delhi, after a foreign rule of 300 years. Hemu, who was bestowed the title of 'Samrat' at Purana Quila, Delhi was then known as 'Samrat Hem Chandra Vikramaditya'. Hemu lost his life while fighting in the 'Second Battle of Panipat' against Akbar's forces on 7 Nov. 1556. During 1557–1576, Akbar, the Mughal emperor, annexed Bihar and Bengal to his empire. Thus, the medieval period was mostly one of anonymous provincial existence.

The tenth and the last Guru of Sikhism, Guru Gobind Singh was born in Patna. After the Battle of Buxar (1764), the British East India Company obtained the diwani rights (rights to administer, and collect revenue or tax) for Bihar, Bengal and Orissa.The rich resources of fertile Land, water and skilled labour had attracted the foreign entrepreneurs,specially the Dutch and Britishers in eighteenth century. A number of Agrio based industries had been started in Bihar by the foreign entrepreneurs. From this point, Bihar remained a part the Bengal Presidency of the British Raj until 1912, when the province of Bihar and Orissa was carved out as a separate province. Bihar now celebrates its birthday as Bihar Diwas on 22 March from 2010. In 1935, certain portions of Bihar were reorganised into the separate province of Orissa.

Babu Kunwar Singh of Jagdishpur and his army, as well as countless other persons from Bihar, contributed to the India's First War of Independence (1857), also called the Sepoy Mutiny by some historians. Resurgence in the history of Bihar came during the struggle for India's independence.
Rajendra Prasad (Sitting left) & Anugrah Narayan Sinha (sitting right) during 1917 Satyagraha movement

It was from Bihar that Mahatma Gandhi launched his pioneering civil-disobedience movement, Champaran Satyagraha. Brahmins in Champaran had earlier revolted against indigo cultivation in 1914 (at Pipra) and 1916 (Turkaulia) and Pandit Raj Kumar Shukla took Mahatma Gandhi to Champaran and the Champaran Satyagraha began.[48] Raj Kumar Shukla drew the attention of Mahatma Gandhi to the exploitation of the peasants by European indigo planters. Champaran Satyagraha received the spontaneous support from many Bihari nationalists like Rajendra Prasad who became the first President of India and Anugrah Narayan Sinha who ultimately became the first Deputy Chief Minister cum Finance Minister of Bihar.

In the northern and central regions of Bihar, peasants movement was an important consequence of the Freedom Movement. The Kisan Sabha movement started in Bihar under the leadership of Swami Sahajanand Saraswati who had formed in 1929, the Bihar Provincial Kisan Sabha (BPKS), in order to mobilize peasant grievances against the zamindari attacks on their occupancy rights. Gradually the peasant movement intensified and spread across the rest of India. All these radical developments on the peasant front culminated in the formation of the All India Kisan Sabha (AIKS) at the Lucknow session of the Indian National Congress in April 1936 with Swami Sahajanand Saraswati elected as its first President. This movement aimed at overthrowing the feudal (zamindari) system instituted by the British. It was led by Swami Sahajanand Saraswati and his followers Pandit Yamuna Karjee, Rahul Sankrityayan, Pandit Karyanand Sharma, Baba Nagarjun and others. Pandit Yamuna Karjee along with Rahul Sankritayan and a few others started publishing a Hindi weekly Hunkar from Bihar, in 1940. Hunkar later became the mouthpiece of the peasant movement and the agrarian movement in Bihar and was instrumental in spreading it.

Bihar made an immense contribution to the Freedom Struggle, with outstanding leaders like Swami Sahajanand Saraswati, Dr. Rajendra Prasad, Sri Krishna Sinha,Dr. Anugrah Narayan Sinha,K. B. Sahay, Brajkishore Prasad,Mulana Mazharul Haque, Jayaprakash Narayan,Thakur Jugal Kishore Sinha,Satyendra Narayan Sinha,Ram Dulari Sinha,Basawon Singh, Rameshwar Prasad Sinha, Yogendra Shukla, Baikuntha Shukla, Sheel Bhadra Yajee, Pandit Yamuna Karjee and many others who worked for India's freedom relentlessly and helped in the upliftment of the underprivileged masses. Khudiram Bose, Upendra Narayan Jha "Azad", Prafulla Chaki and Baikuntha Shukla were active in revolutionary movement in Bihar.

On 15 January 1934, Bihar was devastated by an earthquake of magnitude 8.4. Some 30,000 people were said to have died in the quake.

The state of Jharkhand was carved out of Bihar in the year 2000. The 2005 Bihar assembly elections ended 15 years of continuous RJD rule in the state, giving way to NDA led by Nitish Kumar.

Bihari migrant workers have faced violence and prejudice in many parts of India, such as Maharashtra, Punjab and Assam, making an impression that India still carries tribal localized mindset despite of more than 50 years of Independence as a Republic

Geography of Bihar

Topic Geography and Climate
Bihar is a vast stretch of fertile plain. It is drained by the Ganges River, including its northern tributaries Gandak and Koshi, originating in the Nepal Himalayas and the Bagmati originating in the Kathmandu Valley that regularly flood parts of the Bihar plains. The total area covered by the state of Bihar is 94,163 km². the state is located between 21°-58'-10" N ~ 27°-31'-15" N latitude and between 83°-19'-50" E ~ 88°-17'-40" E longitude. Its average elevation above sea level is 173 feet (53 m).The Ganges divides Bihar into two unequal halves and flows through the middle from west to east. Other Ganges tributaries are the Son River, Budhi Gandak, Chandan, Orhani and Falgu. Though the Himalayas begin at the foothills, a short distance inside Nepal and to the north of Bihar, the mountains influence Bihar's landforms, climate, hydrology and culture. Central parts of Bihar have some small hills, for example the Rajgir hills. To the south is the Chota Nagpur plateau, which was part of Bihar until 2000 but now is part of a separate state called Jharkhand.

Climate of Bihar

Topic Geography and Climate
Bihar is mildly cold in the winter, with the lowest temperatures being in the range from 4–10 °C (39–50 °F). Winter months are December and January. It is hot in the summer, with average highs around 35–40 °C (95–104 °F). April to mid June are the hottest months. The monsoon months of June, July, August, and September see good rainfall. October, November, February, and March have a pleasant climate.

Flora and fauna

Topic Flora and Fauna
Bihar has notified forest area of 6,764.14 km², which is 7.1% of its geographical area.The sub Himalayan foothill of Someshwar and the Dun ranges in the Champaran district are another belt of moist deciduous forests. These also consist of scrub, grass and reeds. Here the rainfall is above 1,600 mm and thus promotes luxuriant Sal forests in the area. The most important trees are Shorea Robusta, Sal Cedrela Toona, Khair, and Semal. Deciduous forests also occur in the Saharsa and Purnia districts. Shorea Robusta (sal), Diospyros melanoxylon (kendu), Boswellia serrata (salai), Terminalia tomentose (Asan), Terminalia bellayoica (Bahera), Terminalia Arjuna (Arjun), Pterocarpus Marsupium (Paisar), Madhuca indica (Mahua) are the common flora across the forest of Bihar.

The Ganges River dolphins, or "sois" are found in the Ganges and Brahmaputra.This river dolphin is the national aquatic animal of India. It is now considered amongst the most endangered mammals of the region. The dolphins range from 2.3 to 2.6 meters in length. They have impaired vision due to the muddy river water but use sonar signals to navigate.Vikramshila Gangetic Dolphin Sanctuary ,near Bhagalpur is set up to ensure the protection of this species.

Valmiki National Park, West Champaran district, covering about 800 km² of forest, is the 18th Tiger Reserve of India and is ranked fourth in terms of density of tiger population. It has a diverse landscape, sheltering rich wildlife habitats and floral and faunal composition, along with the prime protected carnivores.

Government and administration

Topic Government and Administration
The constitutional head of the Government of Bihar is the Governor, who is appointed by the President of India. The real executive power rests with the Chief Minister and the cabinet. The political party or the coalition of political parties having a majority in the Legislative Assembly forms the Government.

The head of the bureaucracy of the State is the Chief Secretary. Under this position, is a hierarchy of officials drawn from the Indian Administrative Service, Indian Police Service, and different wings of the State Civil Services. The judiciary is headed by the Chief Justice. Bihar has a High Court which has been functioning since 1916. All the branches of the government are located in the state capital, Patna.

The state is divided into 09 divisions and 38 districts, for administrative purposes. The various districts included in the divisions - Patna, Tirhut, Saran, Darbhanga, Kosi, Purnia, Bhagalpur, Munger and Magadh Division, are as listed below.

List of District and Division

Topic Government and Administration
BhagalpurBhagalpurBanka, Bhagalpur
DarbhangaDarbhangaBegusarai, Darbhanga, Madhubani, Samastipur
KosiSaharsaMadhepura, Saharsa, Supaul
MagadhGayaArwal, Aurangabad, Gaya, Jehanabad, Nawada
MungerMungerJamui, Khagaria, Munger, Lakhisarai, Sheikhpura
PatnaPatnaBhojpur, Buxar, Kaimur, Patna, Rohtas, Nalanda
Purnia  PurniaAraria, Katihar, Kishanganj, Purnia
SaranChapraGopalganj, Saran, Siwan
TirhutMuzaffarpurEast Champaran, Muzaffarpur, Sheohar, Sitamarhi, Vaishali, West Champaran

Block List of Bihar

Topic Government and Administration
1ArariaAraria, Bhargama, Forbesganj, Jokihat, Kursakatta, Narpatganj, Palasi, Raniganj, Sikti
2ArwalArwal, Kaler, Karpi, Kurtha, Sonbhadra Banshi Suryapur
3AurangabadAurangabad, Barun, Daudnagar, Deo, Goh, Haspura, Kutumba, Madanpur, Nabinagar, Obra, Rafiganj
4BankaAmarpur, Banka, Barahat, Bausi, Belhar, Chanan, Dhuraiya, Katoria, Phulidumar, Rajaun, Shambhuganj
5BegusaraiBachhwara, Bakhri, Balia, Barauni, Begusarai, Bhagwanpur, Birpur, Cheria Bariarpur, Chhorahi, Dandari, Garhpura, Khudabandpur, Mansurchak, Matihani, Naokothi, Sahebpur Kamal, Shamho Akha Kurha, Teghra
6BhagalpurBihpur, Gopalpur, Goradih, Ismailpur, Jagdishpur, Kahalgaon, Kharik, Narayanpur, Nathnagar, Naugachhia, Pirpainti, Rangra Chowk, Sabour Shahkund, Sonhaula, Sultanganj
7BhojpurAgiaon, Arrah, Barhara, Behea, Charpokhari, Garhani, Jagdishpur, Koilwar, Piro, Sahar, Sandesh, Shahpur, Tarari, Udwant Nagar
8BuxarBarhampur, Buxar, Chakki, Chaugain, Chausa, Dumraon, Itarhi, Kesath, Nawanagar, Rajpur, Simri
9DarbhangaAlinagar, Bahadurpur, Baheri, Benipur, Biraul, Darbhanga, Ghanshyampur, Gora Bauram, Hanumannagar, Hayaghat, Jale, Keotiranway, Kiratpur, Kusheshwar Asthan, Kusheshwar Asthan Purbi, Manigachhi, Singhwara, Tardih
10E.Champaran(Motihari)Adapur, Areraj, Banjaria, Bankatwa, Chakia(Pipra), Chiraia, Dhaka, Ghorasahan, Harsidhi, Kalyanpur, Kesaria, Kotwa, Madhuban, Mehsi, Motihari, Narkatia, Paharpur, Pakri Dayal, Patahi, Phenhara, Piprakothi, Ramgarhwa, Raxaul, Sangrampur, Sugauli, Tetaria, Turkaulia
11GayaAmas, Atri, Banke Bazar, Barachatti, Belaganj, Bodh Gaya, Dobhi, Dumaria, Fatehpur, Gaya Town CD Block, Guraru, Gurua, Imamganj, Khizirsarai, Konch, Manpur, Mohanpur, Muhra, Neem Chak Bathani, Paraiya, Sherghati, Tan Kuppa, Tikari, Wazirganj
12GopalganjBaikunthpur, Barauli, Bhorey, Bijaipur, Gopalganj, Hathua, Katiya, Kuchaikote, Manjha, Pach Deuri, phulwaria, Sidhwalia, Thawe, Uchkagaon
13JamuiBarhat, Chakai, Gidhaur, Islamnagar Aliganj, Jamui, Jhajha, Khaira, Lakshmipur, Sikandra, Sono
14JehanabadGhoshi, Hulasganj, Jehanabad, Kako, Makhdumpur, Modanganj, Ratni Faridpur
15KaimurAdhaura, Bhabua, Bhagwanpur, Chainpur, Chand, Durgawati, Kudra, Mohania, Nuaon, Ramgarh, Rampur
16KatiharAmdabad, Azamnagar, Balrampur, Barari, Barsoi, Dandkhora, Falka, Hasanganj, Kadwa, katihar, Korha, Kursela, Manihari, Mansahi, Pranpur, Sameli
17KhagariaAlauli, Beldaur, Chautham, Gogri, Khagaria, Mansi, Parbatta
18KishanganjBahadurganj, Dighalbank, Kishanganj, Kochadhamin, Pothia, Terhagachh, Thakurganj
19LakhisaraiBarahiya, Halsi, Lakhisarai, Pipariya, Ramgarh Chowk, Surajgarha
20MadhepuraAlamnagar, Bihariganj, Chausa, Gamharia, Ghailarh, Gwalpara, Kumarkhand, Madhepura, Murliganj, Puraini, Shankarpur, Singheshwar, Uda Kishanganj
21MadhubaniAndhratharhi, Babubarhi, Basopatti, Benipatti, Bisfi, Ghoghardiha, Harlakhi, Jainagar, Jhanjharpur, Kaluahi, Khajauli, Khutauna, Ladania, Lakhnaur Laukahi, Madhepur, Madhubani, Madhwapur, Pandaul, Phulparas, Rajnagar
22MungerAsarganj, Bariarpur, Dharhara, Jamalpur, Kharagpur, Munger, Sangrampur, Tarapur, Tetiha Bambor
23MuzaffarpurAurai, Bandra, Baruraj (Motipur), Bochaha, Dholi (Moraul), Gaighat, Kanti, Katra, Kurhani, Marwan, Minapur, Musahari, Paroo, Sahebganj, Sakra, Saraiya
24NalandaAsthawan, Ben, Bihar, Bind, Chandi, Ekangarsarai, Giriak, Harnaut, Hilsa, Islampur, Karai Parsurai, Katrisarai, Nagarnausa, Noorsarai, Parbalpur, Rahui, Rajgir, Sarmera, Silao, Tharthari
25NawadaAkbarpur, Gobindpur, Hisua, Kashi Chak, Kawakol, Meskaur, Nardiganj, Narhat, Nawada, Pakribarawan, Rajauli, Roh, Sirdala, Warisaliganj
26PatnaAthmalgola, Bakhtiarpur, Barh, Belchhi, Bihta, Bikram, Danapur-Cum-Khagaul, Daniawan, Dhanarua, Dulhin Bazar, Fatwah, Ghoswari, Khusrupur, Maner, Masaurhi, Mokameh, Naubatpur, Paliganj, Pandarak, Patna Sadar, Phulwari, Punpun, Sampatchak
27PurniaAmour, Baisa, Baisi, Banmankhi, Barhara, Bhawanipur, Dagarua, Dhamdaha, Jalalgarh, Kasba, Krityanand Nagar, Purnia East, Rupauli, Srinagar
28RohtasAkorhi Gola, Bikramganj, Chenari, Dawath, Dehri, Dinara, Karakat, Kargahar, Kochas, Nasriganj, Nauhatta, Nokha, Rajpur, Rohtas, Sanjhauli, Sasaram, Sheosagar, Suryapura, Tilouthu
29SaharsaBanma Itahri, Kahara, Mahishi, Nauhatta, Patarghat, Salkhua, Satar Kataiya, Saur Bazar, Simri Bakhtiarpur, Sonbarsa
30SamastipurBibhutpur, Bithan, Dalsinghsarai, Hasanpur, Kalyanpur, Khanpur, Mohanpur, Mohiuddinagar, Morwa, Patori, Pusa, Rosera, Samastipur, Sarairanjan, Shivaji Nagar, Singhia, Tajpur, Ujiarpur, Vidyapati Nagar, Warisnagar
31SaranAmnour, Baniapur, Chapra, Dariapur, Dighwara, Ekma, Garkha, Ishupur, Jalalpur, Lahladpur, Maker, Manjhi, Marhaura, Mashrakh, Nagra, Panapur, Parsa, Revelganj, Sonepur, Taraiya
32SeikhpuraAriari, Barbigha, Chewara, Ghat Kusumbha, Sheikhpura, Shekhopur Sarai
33SheoharDumri Katsari, Piprarhi, Purnahiya, Sheohar, Tariani Chowk
34SitamarhiBairgania, Bajpatti, Bathnaha, Belsand, Bokhara, Charaut, Dumra, Majorganj, Nanpur, Parihar, Parsauni, Pupri, Riga, Runisaidpur, Sonbarsa, Suppi, Sursand
35SiwanAndar, Barharia, Basantpur, Bhagwanpur Hat, Darauli, Daraundha, Goriakothi, Guthani, Hasanpura, Hussainganj, Lakri Nabiganj, Maharajganj, Mairwa, Nautan, Pachrukhi, Raghunathpur, Siswan, Siwan, Ziradei
36SupaulBasantpur, Chhatapur, Kishanpur, Marauna, Nirmali, Pipra, Pratapganj, Raghopur, Saraigarh Bhaptiyahi, Supaul, Tribeniganj
37VaishaliBhagwanpur, Bidupur, Chehra Kalan, Desri, Goraul, Hajipur, Jandaha, Lalganj, Mahnar, Mahua, Patepur, Paterhi Belsar, Raghopur, Raja Pakar, Sahdai Buzurg, Vaishali
38W.Champaran(Bettiah)Bagaha, Bairia, Bettiah, Bhitaha, Chanpatia, Gaunaha, Jogapatti, Lauriya, Madhubani, Mainatanr, Majhaulia, Narkatiaganj, Nautan, Piprasi, Ramnagar, Sidhaw, Sikta, Thakrahan

Cinema of Bihar

Topic Cinema
Bihar has a robust cinema industry for the Bhojpuri language. There are some small Maithili, Angika and Magadhi film industry. First Bhojpuri Film was Ganga Jamuna released in 1961."Lagi nahin chute ram" was the all-time superhit Bhojpuri film which was released against "Mugle Azam" but was a superhit in all the eastern and northern sector. Bollywood's Nadiya Ke Paar is among the most famous Bhojpuri language movie. The first Maithili movie was Kanyadan released in 1965,[105] of which a significant portion was made in the Maithili language. Bhaiyaa a Magadhi film was released in 1961. Bhojpuri's history begins in 1962 with the well-received film Ganga Maiyya Tohe Piyari Chadhaibo ("Mother Ganges, I will offer you a yellow sari"), which was directed by Kundan Kumar.Throughout the following decades, films were produced only in fits and starts. Films such as Bidesiya ("Foreigner", 1963, directed by S. N. Tripathi) and Ganga ("Ganges", 1965, directed by Kundan Kumar) were profitable and popular, but in general Bhojpuri films were not commonly produced in the 1960s and 1970s.

In the 1980s, enough Bhojpuri films were produced to tentatively make up an industry. Films such as Mai ("Mom", 1989, directed by Rajkumar Sharma) and Hamar Bhauji ("My Brother's Wife", 1983, directed by Kalpataru) continued to have at least sporadic success at the box office. However, this trend faded out by the end of the decade, and by 1990, the nascent industry seemed to be completely finished.

The industry took off again in 2001 with the super hit Saiyyan Hamar ("My Sweetheart", directed by Mohan Prasad), which shot the hero of that film, Ravi Kissan, to superstardom. This success was quickly followed by several other remarkably successful films, including Panditji Batai Na Biyah Kab Hoi ("Priest, tell me when I will marry", 2005, directed by Mohan Prasad) and Sasura Bada Paisa Wala ("My father-in-law, the rich guy", 2005). In a measure of the Bhojpuri film industry's rise, both of these did much better business in the states of Uttar Pradesh and Bihar than mainstream Bollywood hits at the time, and both films, made on extremely tight budgets, earned back more than ten times their production costs.Sasura Bada Paisa Wala also introduced Manoj Tiwari, formerly a well-loved folk singer, to the wider audiences of Bhojpuri cinema. In 2008, he and Ravi Kissan are still the leading actors of Bhojpuri films, and their fees increase with their fame. The extremely rapid success of their films has led to dramatic increases in Bhojpuri cinema's visibility, and the industry now supports an awards show and a trade magazine, Bhojpuri City, which chronicles the production and release of what arenow over one hundred films per year. Many of the major stars of mainstream Bollywood cinema, including Amitabh Bachchan, have also recently worked in Bhojpuri films.

Media in Bihar

Topic Media
Biharbandhu was the first Hindi newspaper published from Bihar. It was started in 1872 by Madan Mohan Bhatta, a Maharashtrian Brahman settled in Biharsharif.Hindi journalism in Bihar, and specially Patna, could make little headway initially. It was mainly due to lack of respect for Hindi among the people at large. Many Hindi journals took birth and after a lapse of time vanished. Many journals were shelved even in the embryo. But once Hindi enlisted the official support, it started making a dent into the remote areas in Bihar. Hindi journalism also acquired wisdom and maturity and its longevity was prolonged. Hindi was introduced in the law courts in Bihar in 1880.

Urdu journalism and poetry has a glorious past in Bihar. Many poets belong to Bihar such as Shaad Azimabadi, Kaif Azimabadi, Kalim Ajiz and many more. Shanurahman, a world famous radio announcer, is from Bihar. Many Urdu dailies such as Qomi Tanzim and Sahara publish from Bihar at this time. There is a monthly Urdu magazine called "VOICE OF BIHAR" - which is the first of its kind and becoming popular among the Urdu speaking people.

The beginning of the twentieth century was marked by a number of notable new publications. A monthly magazine named Bharat Ratna was started from Patna in 1901. It was followed by Ksahtriya Hitaishi, Aryavarta from Dinapure, Patna, Udyoga and Chaitanya Chandrika.[116] Udyog was edited by Vijyaanand Tripathy, a famous poet of the time and Chaitanya Chandrika by Krishna Chaitanya Goswami, a literary figures of that time. The literary activity was not confined to Patna alone but to many districts of Bihar.

Magahi Parishad, established in Patna in 1952, pioneered Magadhi journalism in Bihar. It started the monthly journal, Magadhi, which was later renamed Bihan.

DD Bihar and ETV Bihar are the television channels dedicated to Bihar. Recently[when?] a dedicated Bhojpuri channel, Mahuaa TV has been launched followed by Hamar TV and Maurya TV.

Hindustan, Dainik Jagran, Aaj, Nayee Baat and Prabhat Khabar are some of the popular Hindi news papers of Bihar. National English dailies like The Times of India, Hindustan Times, The Telegraph and The Economic Times have readers in the urban regions.

Transportation in Bihar

Topic Transportation
Bihar has two operational airports: Lok Nayak Jayaprakash Airport, Patna, and the Gaya Airport, Gaya. The Patna airport is connected to Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata, Lucknow, Bangaluru, Hyderabad, Chennai, Pune and Ranchi.

The Patna airport is categorized as a restricted international airport, with customs facilities to receive international chartered flights.

It is also known as the most dangerous airport in India with a runway span of just around 6000 ft making landing of large planes like 747 and 777 impossible. Only small jets like A320, 737 etc. can land with full brakes,flaps and reverse thrust.

The Gaya Airport is an international airport connected to Colombo, Singapore, Bangkok, Paro and more.

Bihar is well-connected by railway lines to the rest of India. Most of the towns are interconnected, and they also are directly connected to Kolkata, Delhi and Mumbai. Patna, Gaya, Bhagalpur, Muzaffarpur, Darbhanga, Katihar, Barauni and Chhapra are Bihar's best-connected railway stations.

The state has a vast network of National and State highways. East-West corridor goes through the cities of Bihar (Muzaffarpur-Darbhanga-Purnia NH57) 4-6 lanes.

For Buddhist pilgrims, the best option for travel to Bihar is to reach Patna or Gaya, either by air or train, and then travel to Bodh Gaya, Nalanda, Rajgir and Vaishali. Sarnath in Uttar Pradesh also is not very far.

The Ganges – navigable throughout the year – was the principal river highway across the vast north Indo-Gangetic Plain. Vessels capable of accommodating five hundred merchants were known to ply this river in the ancient period; it served as a conduit for overseas trade, as goods were carried from Pataliputra (later Patna) and Champa (later Bhagalpur) out to the seas and to ports in Sri Lanka and Southeast Asia. The role of Ganges as a channel for trade was enhanced by its natural links - it embraces all the major rivers and streams in both north and south Bihar.

In recent times Inland Waterways Authority of India has declared the Ganges between Allahabad and Haldia to be a national inland waterway and has taken steps to restore its navigability.

Contact Details of DM & SP

Topic Government and Administration

Contact Details of DM & SP of District of Bihar

S.No.DistrictDistrict Magistrate (DM)Superintendent of Police (SP)
Email IDContact No.Email IDContact No. 222001(O) 222102(R)sp-araria-bih@nic.in06453-222050, 06453-222333 228994(O) 228988(R)sp-arwal-bih@nic.in06337-228639 223167(O) 223168(R)sp-aurangabad-bih@nic.in06186-222175, 06186-222909 232304(O) 232303(R)sp-banka-bih@nic.in06424-232306 212885(O) 200584(R)sp-begusarai-bih@nic.in06243-223015 ,224019 2400012(O) 2401202(R)sp-bhagalpur-bih@nic.in0641-2401003 221312(O) 223311(R )sp-bhojpur-bih@nic.in06182-221320 ,223303 222336(O) 222335(R)sp-buxar-bih@nic.in06183-222030, 222375 240335(O) 240386(R)sp-darbhanga-bih@nic.in06272-233430, 233326
10E.Champaran(Motihari) 222694(O) 242800(R)sp-motihar-bih@nic.in06252-222684, 222912 2420005(O) 2420008(R)sp-gaya-bih@nic.in0631-2420003, 2420110 224661(O) 224662(R)sp-gopalganj-bih@nic.in06156-224669, 224400 222002(O) 222001(R)sp-jamui-bih@nic.in06345-222302, 222301 223072(O) 223001(R)sp-jehanabad-bih@nic.in06114-223108, 223110 223241(O) 223250(R)sp-bhabhua-bih@nic.in06189-223211, 223672 222581(O) 222583(R)sp-katihar-bih@nic.in06452-222601, 222602 221350(O) 222134(R)sp-khagaria-bih@nic.in06244-222086, 223519 222530(O) 222534(R)sp-kishanganj-bih@nic.in06456-222338, 223138 232124(O) 232490(R)sp-lakhisarai-bih@nic.in06346-222707, 222705 222741(O) 222742(R)sp-madhepura-bih@nic.in06476-222004, 222003 222217(O) 222218(R)sp-madhubani-bih@nic.in06276-223486, 223466 222402(O) 222401(R)sp-munger-bih@nic.in06344-222406, 222272 2212101(O) 2212105(R)sp-muzaffarpur-bih@nic.in0621-2247797, 2242107 225203(O) 225204(R )sp-nalanda-bih@nic.in06112-225207, 223978 222253(O) 222240(R)sp-nawadah-bih@nic.in06324-222489, 222263 2222545(O) 2222097(R ) , , , sprural-patna-bih@nic.in0612-2224318,0612-2667393 222503(O) 222501®sp-purnea-bih@nic.in06454-222508, 222502, 250235 224102(O) 223601(R)sp-saharsa-bih@nic.in06478-224556, 225554 222300(O) 222301(R)sp-samastipur-bih@nic.in06274-222034, 222034 232301(O) 232302(R)sp-saran-bih@nic.in06152-232306, 06152-222720 223041(O) 223100(R)sp-sheikhpura-bih@nic.in06341-23339, 23037 257263(O) 257360(R)sp-sheohar-bih@nic.in06222-287345, 287344 250439(O) 250405(R)sp-sitamarhi-bih@nic.in06226-220405, 220415 242099(O) 242098(R)sp-siwan-bih@nic.in06154-222060, 222366 223112(O) 223111(R)sp-supaul-bih@nic.in06473-223122, 223686 272201(O) 272503(R)sp-vaishali-bih@nic.in06224-272318, 272307
38W.Champaran(Bettiah) 232534(O) 232535(R)sp-bettiah-bih@nic.in06254-232563, 06254-248960
Please Visit District Website for Updated Contact

Tourism in Bihar

Topic Tourist place in Bihar
Bihar is one of the oldest inhabited places in the world, with a history spanning 3,000 years. The rich culture and heritage of Bihar is evident from the innumerable ancient monuments spread throughout the state. Bihar is visited by scores of tourists from all over the world,[121] with around 6,000,000 (6 million) tourists visiting Bihar every year.

In earlier days, tourism in the region was purely based educational tourism, as Bihar was home of some prominent ancient universities like Nalanda University & Vikramaśīla University.

Bihar is one of the most sacred place for various religions like Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism, Sikhism and Islam.

Mahabodhi Temple, a Buddhist shrine and UNESCO World Heritage Site is also situated in Bihar. Mahatma Gandhi Setu, Patna, is the second longest river bridge in the world.

Bihar Government Departments

Topic Government and Administration

Bihar Government Departments, Agencies and public utilities(website)

Bihar Government | Rural Development Department, Bihar | Bihar Combined Entrance Competitive Examination Board (BCECEB) | Bihar School Examination Board (BSEB) | Bihar State Electricity BoardHousing Board, Bihar | State Board of Technical Education, Bihar Bihar Staff Selection Commission | State Election Commission, Bihar | Bihar State Tourism Development Corporation (BSTDC) | Bihar Education Project Council | Bihar Industrial Area Development Authority (BIADA) | Disaster Management, Bihar | State Health Society, Bihar Legislative Council, Bihar | Khuda Bakhsh Oriental Public Library | Directorate of Distance Education, Jai Prakash University | Lalit Narayan Mishra Institute of Economic Development and Social Change (LNMI) | Lalit Narayan Mithila University, Darbhanga |Muzaffarpur Institute of Technology | Nalanda Open University | National Institute of Technology, Patna | Patna Science College | Patna University | Rajendra Agricultural University (RAU) | State Board of Technical Education, Bihar | State Institute of Education Technology, Patna | Tilka Manjhi Bhagalpur University (TMBU) | Indira Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences (IGIMS), Patna | Bihar State Tourism Development Corporation (BSTDC) | Bihar State Tourism Development Corporation (BSTDC) | Bihar Mahadalit Vikas Mission SC/ST Welfare Department,Bihar

District Website

Topic Government and Administration

Tourist Destinations In Bihar

Topic Tourist place in Bihar
Major Tourist Destinations In Bihar

BODHGAYA       :
   The place where Lord Buddha attained the Supreme enlightenment. The famous Mahabodhi Temple, a world Heritage, stands here.                                                             


        : The world’s highest Buddhist Stupa (Pagoda)                                                     East champaran

          :  First Buddhist Council was held here                                                                  Nalanda 

        : Remains of ancient Nalanda University                                                                Nalanda

        : Place of world’s First Republic /second Buddhist council was held here                    Vaishali

  :Remains of ancient Vikramshila University                                                             Bhagalpur

:Traces of Buddhist shrines are found among the rocks. Chaityas and large
“Veharsâ€�? or Buddhist monasteries once stood there.                                                                      Aurangabad 

  :         Ashokan Pillar                                                                             West Champaran

         : Ashokan Pillar                                                                                                East Champaran

         : Buddhist statues are found here                                                                          Aurangabad
Prominent Jain Spots

         : Believed to be the birth place of Lord Mahavir, the 24th Jain
                           Tirthankar Muzaffarpur                                                                                                  

             :  Jain Temples                                                                                               Nalanda

        : Jain Temples                                                                                                Nalanda

:  Do                                                                                                             Nalanda

     :  Do                                                                                                             Jamui

        : The place where 24th Jain Tirthankar, Lord Mahavir, was cremated                      Nalanda                    

: Important Jain pilgrimage                                                                                Banka

            : Jain pilgrimage in and around                                                                           Bhojpur
Prominent Sikh Spots 

: Birth place of the 10th Sikh Gobind Singh Jee                                                      Patna

Prominent Islamic Spots
BIHARSHARIF         : Prominent religious center                                                                         Nalanda 

 : Prominent religious center                                                                         Patna

      : Associated with Sufi Saint Hazrat Yahya Maneri                                              Patna
Prominent Hindu Pilgrimage

                    : Ancient Temple dedicated to Lord Vishnu/
Here the Hindus offer oblation to there ancestors                                                                         Gaya

          : Prominent religious center                                                                        Bhagalpur 

                    : Prominent religious center /Also famous for Many Hot springs                        Nalanda 
HARIHAR KSHETRA : Prominent religious center /Famous for the world’s                                      Sonepur 

        : Biggest cattle fair- Harihar Kshetra

                : Prominent religious center                                                                        Banka

             : Birth place o legendary Sita                                                                      Sitamarhi 

                     : Ancient Goddess Durga (Bhawani) Temple                                                 Siwan 

            :  Prominent religious center associated with legendary Sitaadhubani

                        : Ancient Goddess Durga Temple                                                                 Saran 

               : Ancient Ugratara (Goddess Durga) Temple                                                  Saharsa 

: Ancient Goddess Durga Temple                                                           Kaimur

: Prominent religious center                                                                        Munger 

      : Ancient Shiva Temple                                                                              Madhepura

                        : Ancient Sun Temple                                                                                Aurangabad

: Prominent religious center                                                                        Patna
Prominent Archaeological Sites 

         : Many archaeological sites                                                                              Gaya

           : Remains of the ancient Nalanda University                                                       Nalanda 

             : Many archeological sites in and around                                                            Nalanda

MANER                 : Archaeological sites                                                                                     Patna 

           :3rd. Century B.C. caves                                                                                Jehanabad 

                     : Ancient sun temple                                                                                    Aurangabad 

                    : Ancient Vishnu Temple                                                                               Gaya 


          : Cave paintings                                                                                            Kaimur 

               : Ashokan pillar                                                                                             West Champaran 

      : Ancient Buddhist Stupa                                                                               West Champaran

                 :Many archaeological sites in and around                                                           Patna 

SHERSHAH MAUSOLEUM                                                                                                       Do Rohtas 

            : Ashokan pillar an stupas, etc                                                                        Vaishali 

     : Remains of the ancient Vikramshila University                                                  Bhagalpur  
Flora &fauna

           : Hills &forests, Hot water springs                                                                      Nalanda  

           : Water fall, Hills &forests                                                                                 Nawada 

        : Hills &forests, Cave painting, Streams, Water falls                                               Kaimur 

       : Hills &forests, Streams, Hot water springs and wild life                                        Munger

Kosi River The Sorrow of Bihar

Topic Rivers of Bihar
The Kosi River ( कोसी नदी) is one of the largest tributaries of the Ganga River . Kosi river is called Koshi in Nepal and is a Tran boundary river between Nepal and India. The river basin is surrounded by the ridges separating it from the Brahmaputra in the north, the Gandaki in the west, the Mahananda in the east, and by the Ganga in the south. Kamlā, Bāghmati (Kareh) and Budhi Gandak are major tributaries of Koshi in India, besides minor tributaries like Bhutahi Balān. Over the last 250 years, the Kosi River has shifted its course over 120 kilometres from east to west. The Kosi River (The Sorrow of Bihar) is one of two major tributaries, the other river being Gandak, draining the plains of north Bihar, the most flood-prone area of India. This river is mentioned in the epic Mahabharata as Kauśiki.
The Kosi river has seven major tributaries. These tributaries encircle Mt Everest from all sides and are fed by the world's highest glaciers. After descends from the mountains they merge and called simply the Koshi. After flowing 58 km in Nepal, it enters the north Bihar plains near Bhimnagar and after another 260 km , flows into the Ganges near Kursela. The river travels a distance of 729 km from its source to the confluence with the Ganga.
The Kosi river fan located in northeast Bihar and eastern Mithila is 180 km long and 150 km -wide alluvial cone shows evidence of lateral channel shifting exceeding 120 km during the past 250 years through more than 12 distinct channels. The river, which used to flow near Purnea in the 18th century, now flows west of Saharsa.
Two famous national parks are located in the Koshi river basin: the Sagarmatha National Park, in eastern Nepal and the Koshi Tappu Wildlife Reserve situated in Eastern Nepal. Sagarmatha National park is located in eastern Nepal is also included as a UNESCO world heritage site, was created on July 19, 1976.
The Kosi is known as the “Sorrow of Bihar�? when it flows from Nepal to India, as it has caused widespread human suffering in the past through flooding and very frequent changes in course. The Kosi Barrage has been designed for a peak flood of 27,014 m³/s
Kosi Barrage, also called Bhimnagar Barrage after the name of the place where it was built between the years 1959 and 1963 straddles the Indo-Nepal border. It is an irrigation, flood control and hydropower generation project on the Kosi river
built under a bilateral agreement between Nepal and India: the entire cost of the project was borne by India. The catchment area of the river is 61,788 in Nepal at the Barrage site.


Topic Tourist place in Bihar
Bihar State Tourism Development Corporation (BSTDC) was established in the year 1981 for the development of tourism in the State of Bihar and for commercialization of Tourist Resources available with the State. To achieve this objective various tourist infrastructure like Tourist Bungalow, Cafeteria, Restaurant, Transportation facilities and Ropeway are provided at various tourists spots by Bihar State Tourism Development Corporation.
BSTDC has taken major initiatives to show the potential of tourist places of Bihar to the World. This website is an effort to provide easy information to the tourists visiting Bihar. It aims to provide information related to important tourist places of Bihar State. The details of available facilities such as Accommodation, Transport, Tour Packages, Tourist Information Centers are available with the site. 

Useful Links (Agriculture)

Topic Agriculture of Bihar

Department of Agriculture and Co-operation 
Directorate of Extension
Indian Council of Agril. Research (ICAR)
Commission for Agriculture  Costs and Prices
Plant Quarantine Organisation of India
National Seeds Corporation limited
Agricultural & Processed Food Products Export Devep. Authority (APEDA)
National Horticulture Board 
National Cooperative Development Corporation
National Oilseeds and Vegetable Oils Devp. Board
Central Insecticides Board Registration Committee
Coconut Development Board
Export Import Bank of India
International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT)
Department of Fertilizers
Department of Food processing Industries
Ministry of Consumer Affairs & Public Distribution
Ministry of Commerce and Industry
Ministry of Rural Devp. (Department of Land Resources) 
Ministry of Water Resources
Ministry of Environment and Forests
National Disaster Management (Ministry of Home Affairs)
Directorate of Plant Protection, Quarantine & Storage 
Directorate of Economics & Statistics  
Crop Related Websites

Coconut Development Board
National Medicinal Plants Board
National Oilseeds and Vegetable Oils Development Board
The Cotton Corporation of India Ltd.
Central Institute for Cotton Research
Central Institute for Research on Cotton Technology
Directorate of Rice Development
Directorate of Cotton Development
Directorate of Wheat Development
Directorate Of Sugarcane Development
Directorate of Cashewnut & Cocoa Development
Directorate of Jute Development
Directorate of Tobacco Development
Directorate of Millets Development
Directorate of Arecanut and Spices Development
National Research Centre for Cashew
Coffee Board of India
Tobacco Board of India
National Research Centre for Onion and Garlic
National Research Centre for Grapes (NRCG)
National Research Centre for Citrus (NRCC)
National Research Centre for Groundnut (NRCG)
National Research Centre for Soybean
National Research Centre for Sorghum
National Research Centre for Medicinal & Aromatic Plants (NRCMAP)
Disaster Management 
Disaster Management Department, Government of Bihar 
Flood Management Information System, Government of Bihar 
Agricultural Universities

Rajendra Agriculture University, Pusa, Samastipur (Bihar)
Acharya NG Ranga Agricultural University (ANGRAU)
Assam Agricultural University (AAU)
Birsa Agricultural University (BAU )
CCS Haryana Agricultural University ( HAU )
Chandra Shekhar Azad University of Agriculture & Technology (CSAUT)
Dr. Panjabrao Deshmukh Krishi Vishwa Vidyalaya (PKV)
Gobind Ballabh Pant University of Agriculture & Technology (GBPUAT)
Gujarat Agricultural university ( GAU)
Himachal Pradesh Krishi Vishwa Vidyalaya (HPKVV)
Kerala Agricultural University (KAU) 
Mahatma Phule Krishi Viyapeeth ( MPKV)
Orissa University of Agriculture & Technology (OUAT)
Punjab Agricultural University (PAU)
Tamilnadu Agricultural University ( TNAU)
University of Agricultural Sciences (UAS, Bangalore)
University of Agricultural Sciences (UAS), Dharwad
Yashwant Singh Parmar University of Horti. & Forestry (YSPUH&F)  
International Organisations 
Agriculture Network Information Center, US
Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research
Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical
Center for International Forestry Research
Centro Internacional de Mejoramiento de Maiz y Trigo
International Center for Agricultural Research in the dry lands
International Center for Living Aquatic Resources Management
International Centre for Research in Agroforestry
International Crops Research Institute for the semi-arid tropics
IITA - International Institute of Tropical Agriculture
IPGRI - International Plant Genetic Resources Institute
IRRI - International Rice Research Institute
ISNAR - International Service for National Agricultural Research
International Centre for Agriculture and Biosciences (CABI)
The National Agricultural Library, USDA
United States Department of Agriculture
United Nations  
United Nations Development Programme (UNDP)
United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization(UNESCO)
World bank
Agriculture Technology Managment Agencies (ATMA)
Amravati, Maharashtra
West Singhbhum, Jharkhand
Kurnool, AP
Chittoor, AP
Prakasam, AP
Khurda, Orissa
Koraput, Orissa 
State Agricultural Management and Extension Training Institutes (SAMETI)
Jharkhand, Ranchi
Bameti, Bihar, Patna  
Agriculture portals 
Bihar Rajya Beej Nigam Ltd, Patna 
Punjab Marketing Board
Rajasthan State Marketing Board 
Maharashtra Marketing Board 
Delhi Agricultural Marketing Board 
Uttar Pradesh Mandi Board 
Meghalaya State Marketing Board 
Assam State Agril. Marketing Board 
Haryana State Marketing Board 
Orrissa State Marketing Board 
Himachal Pradesh Marketing Board
Online Reporting for ATMA

Patna City Bus Ride Root

Topic Transportation

Patna City Bus Ride Root and Time

Red Buses on Route 1 – Khagaul Birla Military Police camp, Phulwarisharif, Anisabad, Chitkohra, R Block, GPO roundabout, Frazer Road and Gandhi Maidan.
Time – Morning 5 A:M to 10 P:M
No. of Buses – 12
Buses after every 15 minutes.

Blue Buses on Route 2 – Gandhi Maidan frazer road – Patna Junction, G.P.O, R Block, Income tax golambar, baily road, saguna moar, danapur.
Time – Morning 5 AM to 11 P:M
No. of Buses – 18

Green Buses on Route 3 – to Rajapur Pul, Kurji and Digha, danapur.
Time – Morning 8 AM to 11:00 P:M
No. of Buses – 12

Yellow Buses on Route 4 – Gandhi Maidan, PMCH, Tripolia hospital, gaighat
Time – Morning 5 AM to 11:35 P:M
No. of buses – 4

Orange Buses on Route 5 – Mithapur Bus stand, New Bypass, Pahari Moar, Agamkuan, Kumhrar Park, Bahadurpur, Rajendra nagar terminal, chiraiyatarh, karbigahiya, mithapur bus stand.
Time – Morning 5 AM to 11:35 P:M
No. of Buses – 6

Purple Buses on Route 6 – Gandhi maidan, rajapur, kurji, st. micheal school, alpana cinema moar, IAS colony.
Time – Morning 5 AM to 8 P:M
No. of Buses – 6

Sky Blue buses on Route 7 – Gandhi maidan, rajaapur, kurji, IIT, patliputra golambar, AN college, boring road.
Time – Morning 5 AM to 11:30 P:M
No. of Buses – 12

Note: on everyline pink color buses were only for ladies.
Rs. 500/- fine for travelling without ticket.

Above information is of on 15th May 2011.

Bihar State Road Transport Corporation and Eden Transport Private Limited.

Additionally, the buses have been equipped with closed circuit TV cameras, to curb crime against passengers. The buses will have music systems and seats have been reserved for senior citizens and physically challenged persons in each bus.

Very soon eight air-conditioned buses will also be catering to passengers on route 2 and 6.

Bihar News Portal

Topic Newspaper and Magazine of Bihar News Portal
One of the most popular & most widely circulated English-language newspapers in Bihar. The newspaper focusing on national news, special stories, climate, economy, world news, business, economy, health, medicine, science, technology, interview, sports, development news, education in Bihar, cinema, showbiz, Jharkhand news, culture of Bihar, and more.
Leading Bihari newspaper focusing on latest news, sports, lifestyle, recipes, city life, village life, upcoming events, politics, and more.
Popular Hindi language newspaper published in Ranchi. The newspaper covers latest events, Railway time, city news from Gaya, Bhagalpur, Muzaffarpur, Darbhanga, Biharsarif, Ara, Munge, Chapra, Katihar, Purnia, Danapur, Sasaram, and Dehri Festivals like Dala Chhath, Kartik Chhath, Teej, Chitragupta Puja, Teej and Chitragupta Puja, and more.
Featuring rural news coverage, agriculture, Bihar's economy, politics, tourism, state news, music of Bihar, weather, science, mathematics, astronomy, religion, and more.
Bihar News Portal covers people, jobs, religion, education, and more.
Providing complete news and information on Political news, Government news, development and business news as well as Tourism in Bihar.
Focus both on Bihar and Jharkhand for News and other information .
Magnificient Bihar –
Danik Bhaskar -

Patna Municipal Corporation

Topic Government and Administration
  The Patna Municipal Corporation was established on the 15th August 1952, in accordance with The Patna Municipal Corporation Act, 1951, which was published in the Bihar Gazettes Extraordinary No.249 the 30th July 1952, by the Govt. Of Bihar in their Notification No. L.S.G. 1088/52 Leg-538 dated 26th July 1952. The Patna Municipal Corporation Act 1951 came into force on 15-08-1952 with the enforcement of Act, the former Patna City Municipality, the former Patna administrative committee and the former Patna Bankipur joint water works committee were replaced by The Patna Municipal Corporation on 15-08-1952. Thus came into being a New Civic Body with the merger of the 88 year Old Patna City Municipality and the 35 year old Patna Administration Committee with more powers and responsibilities and the PMC was established with effect from 15th August 1952, by virtue of orders issued by Govt. in their notification No. 6613 dated 9th August, 1952, published in the Bihar Gazettes Extraordinary No.95 the 11th August 1952. The first election of the councilors were completed in March 1954, but they came in office on the 1st February 1955.

District Education Officer

Topic Refrences
  Download Contact Details of District Education Officer(Bihar)

Government Welfare Schemes

Topic Government and Administration
Swarnajayanti Gram Swarojgar Yojna (SGSY): Bihar
The objective of Swarnajayanti Gram Swarojgar Yojna (SGSY) is to provide sustainable income to the rural poor. The programme aims at establishing a large number of micro-enterprises in the rural areas, based upon the potential of the rural poor. It is envisaged that every family assisted under SGSY will be brought above the poverty-line with in a period of three years.
Indira Aawas Yojana: Bihar
The objective of Indira Aawas Yojana is primarily to help construction/upgradation of dwelling units by members of SC/STs, freed bonded labourers and also other BPL non-SC/ST rural households by providing them a lump sum financial assistance.
Drought Prone Areas Programme (DPAP) : Bihar
The Drought Prone Areas Programme (DPAP) aims at mitigating the adverse effects of drought on the production of crops and livestock and productivity of land, water and human resources. It strives to encourage restoration of ecological balance and seeks to improve the economic and social conditions of the poor and the disadvantaged sections of the rural community.
Visit for more information about Government Welfare Scheme.


Topic Mujhe Kuch Kehna Hai !!

The world is changing constantly and it is said that â€˜those who do not change, they perish in the cut throat competition of survival.

Human beings are the part of biological evolution and witnessed the various changes like agricultural evolution, science evolution and technical evolution.
The world has changed from baggies to buses, cars, railways, aero planes.
From posts to World Wide Web (www),
 From schools to e- education,
 From radio to satellites
And so on.

Changes are the part of life without which progress can’t be achieved.
For simplification,
We can classify ‘change’ in three broad types viz.
Ø Sustainable changes,
Ø Discontinuous or random changes and
Ø Tsunami or unexpected change.

Sustainable changes are the natural changes, where humans can’t interfere or it is not under will power.
For example: growth of a child into an adult is natural and continuous process.
Continuity is the law of nature and we can’t break the laws of universe as There Is No Alternative (TINA).  Any interference with the nature can damage the life cycle or unbalance of human life.

Random changes are discontinuous; they come and disappear in the nature but can disturb the human life. Pandemic or endemic diseases in particular seasons can cause disturbances and are random changes.

The third and very important change is the tsunami change or unexpected change which brings lots of unpredicted changes and can change the lifestyle or hypnotize the people.
For example: Change of traditional vendors to the shopping malls or
Selling of land for industrial set up or Democracy after a forceful slavery is also the biggest change.
A change from inequality to equality is also a tsunami change.

When we try to correlate our life with the advanced technology, we can experience the tsunami change in our lifestyle and in thinking process.
Homo sapien sapien (humans) has been facing the new evolution of technology.
Life has changed its functioning process and has become more technical and professional.
Uses of sophisticated gadgets diminish the emotional quotient of human beings. Success has occupied the place of happiness and took over the charge of brain.
Heart is also technically modified as brain and working continuously for success and forgot to connect with life.  
Life has become more complicated and entrapped in the 24 hours clock.

The disturbed biological clock, stressful life, cardiovascular diseases and other psychological stress, health problems are some of the problems rose due to the modern technologies.

It is said that “if we want to achieve something in life then we have to lose something�? Though we have achieved something but we have lost many things. Technology has given us most comfortable life but also created nuclear families, where we don’t have time for our beloved ones.
Yes!!!! We know that every coin has two sides

We can’t ignore the technology because it has played a very important role in human civilization and will play in future too.
Everything in excess is poisonous!
But sophistication has become the part of human life but somewhere life needs introspection for further better life.
Life is god’s gift for everyone, why one should waste this wonderful life? Life is just once, live it!! Live for yourself, for beloved ones.
Enjoy the freedom of soul and let us thanks everyone to whom we owe to.
Let us be the free from all bindings and say
 â€˜Deep in my heart, I do believe that we shall overcome one day’.

              Sarika N. Suryawanshi

List of Agro based Industries

Topic Agriculture of Bihar
  Districtwise List of Agro based Industries visit 

154 Doctor will be appointed on contract

Topic Bihar News

For more information visit

About Home Department, Government of Bihar

Topic Government and Administration
Home Department plays a key role in Administration. It is bedrock of Police Administration. This Department oversees the maintenance of law and order; prevention and control of crimes; prosecution of criminals besides dealing with Fire Services and Prisons Administration.

It is the nodal Department so far as State Secretariat Service is concerned. Apart from these, Fire Services, Home Guards Services are also being looked after in Home Department. It is closely connected with the conduct of elections to Parliament, and State Legislatures. It keeps a close liaison with Defence Services of Military and Civil Co-operation and for setting up of defence projects in the State.

Divisions of Department:
  1. Home (Special)
  2. Home (Police)
  3. Prison
  4. Police HQ
  5. Home Guard
  6. Fire Service
  7. Forensic Science Laboratory (FSL)
  8. Bihar Police Building Construction Corporation
  9. Police Radio
  10. Police Laboratory (Handwriting)
  11. Photo & Finger Print Bureau
  12. Sainik Kalyan
  13. Prosecution
For more information Visit

Flood Management Information System (FMIS), Bihar

Topic Government and Administration
Flood Management Information System, Bihar finds its genesis in the brainstorming meeting on Jan 18, 2006 in which the Government of Bihar (GoB) and the World Bank agreed on a water sector partnership matrix and action plan in three time horizons. In the short term it was proposed to improve the technical and institutional capacity of the State of Bihar for flood management, introducing the extensive use of modern information technologies developing and implementing a comprehensive Flood Management Information System (FMIS) in priority areas.

Mukhyamantri Kanya Suraksha Yojna

Topic Government and Administration
Mukhyamantri Kanya Suraksha Yojana ensures the rightful place of pride in the society for a girl child, her safety and security, improve the sex ratio and to encourage registration of birth.

The scheme launched jointly by the Bihar Government Social Welfare Department, State Women Development Corporation, and the UTI Asset Management Company, would incur a spending Rs. 140 crore to empower over 7 lakh girls and needy women in the state. Tripartite Memorandum of Undertaking was signed on June 7, 2008. The state government would invest Rs. 2,000 for the first two girls in a family living under the Below Poverty Level (BPL) and born on or after November 22, 2007. The amount of Rs.2000/- will be invested by Women Development Corporation, Patna, Bihar on behalf Government of Bihar in UTI-Children’s Career Balanced Plan-Growth Option. On completion of 18 years the amount equal to the maturity value will be paid to the girl child (Rs. 18000/-). Incase of death of girl child during the intervening period the amount will be paid back to Women Development Corporation, Patna, Bihar. Mukhya Mantri Kanya Suraksha Yojana of Government of Bihar will benefit around 7 lakh girl children born in families living below the poverty line each year. This money could come very handy in pursuing higher education or start a small business if the girls wished to do so.
Under the new scheme, 250 schools would be developed exclusively for the girls in which education would be imparted on the Plus-2 system. Free text books would be provided up to the 8th grade while a stipend of Rs. 200 per month would be given to the needy widows under a scheme dubbed as Lakshmi Bai Pension Plan.

UTI Children’s Career Balanced Plan
UTI Children’s Career Balanced Plan was launched in July 1993 as an openended Plan. Under the Plan, investment can be made in the name of children so as to provide them after they attain the age of 18 years a means to meet the cost of higher education or any other social obligation.
Fund collected under UTI Children’s Career Balanced Plan are invested in equities, debentures/bonds of companies and other money market instruments. The scheme has an asset allocation limit of minimum 60% in debt and maximum 40% in equities/equity related instruments.

Regional Passport Office Patna (Bihar)

Topic Government and Administration
Regional Passport Office Patna started functioning from 1977. It caters to all the districts of Bihar. The office is located at D-Block, Maurya Lok Complex, Patna-1.
Application Forms
How to Fill Forms Affidavits
Fee structure How to apply for passport
Tatkaal Scheme
Online Registration Agent
Passport Act RTI Introduction
Office Address
Office Timings
List Of Holidays
Jurisdiction Contact
Where To Apply
ListofTravel Agents
Counter Details Complaints

To know the status of your application click here

The Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (NREGA)

Topic Government and Administration
The Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act aims at enhancing the livelihood security of people in rural areas by guaranteeing hundred days of wage-employment in a financial year to a rural household whose adult members volunteer to do unskilled manual work.
Public Grievance Redressal [HELPLINE -1800110707 ]

Information Sheet on ICT Infrastructure at Block/Panchayat Samiti/Mandal

For more about The Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act and various report visit 

Bihar to promote organic farming: Nitish Kumar

Topic Bihar News
  Patna. Bihar Chief Minister Nitish Kumar Wednesday said his government will help farmers adopt organic farming for sustainable agriculture and prosperity.
Inaugurating a three-day International Conference on Organic Agriculture with Focus on Horticulture Crops in Bihar here, Nitish Kumar said that the state was at the threshold of a “rainbow revolution�?...Read More

What is Unique Identification(UID) and Unique Identification Authority of India (UIDAI)?

Topic Government and Administration

A Unique Identification is merely a string assigned to an entity that identifies the entity uniquely.The Unique Identification Authority of India (UIDAI) plans to assign a Unique ID to every person residing in India. Biome-tric identification system and checks would be used to ensure that each individual is as-signed one and only UID and the process of generating a new UID would ensure that duplicates are not issued as valid UID numbers.
What is UIDAI?
The Unique Identification Authority of India (UIDAI) has been created, with the mandate of providing a unique identity to all Indian residents. The UIDAI has published an approach to pursuing this mandate, and plans to use biometrics to eliminate
duplicates and ensure uniqueness at enrolment. 
The AADHAR system is being designed to eventually service the entire population of India, and will involve the biometric identification of 1.2 billion residents. Since the estimated database size (1.2 Billion residents) is an order of magnitude larger than the current largest biometric database (115 Million), the biometric subsystem will have to be constantly monitored for accuracy, scalability and performance. To de-risk the entire program, the system will operate multiple concurrent solutions with the ability to introduce and test newer solutions.
Each Automated Biometric Identification Subsystem (ABIS) must implement an interface that is compliant with this specification. That de-couples the biometric subsystem from the main application logic, and enables a management layer that can orchestrate across the multiple solution providers, continuously measure accuracy, performance and enable better decision making. Initially, the same interface will be used for enrolment and authentication. At a later time, authentication may be moved out to a separate sub-system for better scaling, and replication. More generally, as the UID database grows in size, the requirements of the biometric system may evolve, and implementers of this interface will have to keep up with them.

State Health Society, Bihar

Topic Government and Administration
The state health society, Bihar has been established to guide its functionaries towards Receiving, managing (including disbursement to implementing agencies e.g. Directorate, of Medical & Public Health District Societies, NGOs etc.) and account for the funds received from the Ministry of Health & Family Welfare, Government of India.

Its resources will manage the NGO / PPP (Public-Private partnership) components of the NRHM in the state including execution of contracts, disbursement of funds and monitoring of performance. Bihar Govt. has decided that SHS Bihar will function as a Resource Centre for the Department of Health & Family Welfare in policy/situational analysis and policy development (including development of operational guidelines and preparation of policy change proposals for the consideration of Government).

SHS Bihar, Strengthen the technical / management capacity of the Directorate of Medical & Health Services patna as well as of the Districts Societies by various means including through recruitment of individual / institutional experts from the open market and mobilize financial / non-financial resources for complementing/supplementing the NRHM activities in the State.

It will organize training, meeting, conferences, policy review studies / surveys, workshops and inter-state exchange visits etc. for deriving inputs for improving the implementation of NRHM in the BIHAR.

Bihar Knowledge Centre (BKC)

Topic Government and Administration
  The Bihar Knowledge Centre will be a Key interface between Students and the Industry thereby creating job opportunities for talent for Bihar. The BKC shall provide training which will range from highly technical courses to end-user training. New courses are regularly added to the Knowledge Centre, providing users with the information and training they need to master existing as well as upcoming demands of industry to increase their employability, capability and capacity.
Goals of BKC:-

    * Establish an inclusive, comprehensive and nationally consistent process for identification of industry needs and address these via training, appropriate funding and resource mechanism
    * Establish a process for a systematic and responsive integration of research and development outcomes into Training packages and courses
    * Establish industry consultation as a key feature of training quality assurance, and course development, review and evaluation processes
    * BKC would become a premiere institution in the state of Bihar for Skill Development and High End Specialised Training.

BKC will have trained Trainers of specialized courses with leading software development companies. Also, it can hire trainers from the original software manufacturers and training partners of those firms.
BKC should not merely be an IT training/Coaching institute, rather it will be a Knowledge centre in true sense by taking up other activities like:-

    * Soft Skill Development
    * Entrepreneurship Development
    * Self-Employing Activities (Creation of a cadre of trainers and professional to take up state level training and knowledge generation agency)
    * Creation of Knowledge repository for Government of Bihar to take up IT, e-Governance initiatives to newer levels including Government Process Outsourcing

The BKC will start with a Centralized Training Facility in Patna. After stabilization and maturity within a year it will start establishing training centres in the educational institutions and districts all over the state of Bihar.

List of Bihar Government Departments

Topic Government and Administration
Bihar Government Departments and there website
Animal & Fish Resources
BC & EBC Welfare
Board of Revenue
Building Construction
Commercial Taxes
Disaster Management
Environment & Forest
Food & Consumer Protection
General Administration
Health & Family Welfare
Human Resource Development
Information & Public Relations
Information Technology
Labour Resources
Minority Welfare
Panchayati Raj
Public Health Engineering
Registration, Excise & Prohibition
Revenue & Land Reforms
Road Construction
Rural Development
Rural Works
Science & Technology
SC & ST Welfare
Social Welfare
Urban Development
Water Resources
Youth, Art & Culture

List of Ayurvedic Colleges in Bihar

Topic Education

Ayurvedic Colleges in Bihar

Ayurvedic Medical CollegeGaya – 823 001Ayurvedacharya (Seats:30)
Dayanand Ayurved College & HospitalSiwan – 841 266(BIHAR)Ayurvedacharya (Seats:40)
Government Ayurvedic College Post-Graduate
Training & Research Centre
Kadam Kuan, Patna – 800003(BIHAR)Ayurvedacharya (Seats:40), Ayurved Vachaspati [Dravyaguna (Seats:04), Rasashastra (Seats:04)]

Moti Singh Jogeshwari Ayurved College & HospitalBara Telpa, Chhapra-841301(BIHAR)Ayurvedacharya (Seats:40)
Nitishwar Institute of Medical SciencesBawan Beegha, Kanholi, P.O. Ramna, Muzaffarpur-842 002 (BIHAR)Ayurvedacharya (Seats:40)
Rajkiya Ayodhya Shivkumari Ayurved MahavidyalayaBegusarai-850 101. (BIHAR)Ayurvedacharya (Seats:30)
Rajkiya Maharani Rameshwari Bhartiya Chikitsa Vigyan SansthanMohanpur – 846 006(BIHAR)
Sh. Yatindra Narayan Ashtang Government Ayurvedic CollegeP.O.Champanagar, Bhagalpur-812 004. (BIHAR)
Shri Dhanwatri Ayurved MahavidyalayaAhirouli, Buxar- 802 001. (BIHAR)
Shri Ravindranath Mukherji Ayurved CollegeDistt. Champaran, Motihari-845 401. (BIHAR)
Swami Raghwendracharya Tridandi Ayurved MahavidyalayaKarjara Station, P.O. Manjhol, Gaya-823 001 (BIHAR)

Right to Service Bill 2011

Topic Government and Administration
  The Government of Bihar (GoB) launched the “Bihar Prashasnik Sudhar Missionâ€�? (BPSM) with the overall objective of transforming the Governance of the State. The Department for International Development (DFID) is financing the administration of BPSM and is also providing resources to help Govt. of Bihar implement administrative reforms, modernise administrative processes, strengthen human resource m...anagement and increase accountability under the Bihar Governance and Administrative Reforms Programme (BGARP).

In a bid to weed out corruption from the grassroots level, Bihar Chief Minister Nitish Kumar has said he will bring the Right to Service Bill during the Budget session.“The proposed Act, besides the RTI Act, will be an important tool in the hands of the people. We have been receiving numerous complaints regarding obtaining income tax and other kinds of certificates, depositing bills and other utility related services,�? said Nitish.
The government has asked bureaucrats to prepare a draft of the proposed bill that seeks to make it mandatory for the state government and its agencies to extend services to people within the stipulated timeframe failing which the officials concerned could be penalised.

About Nitish Kumar

Topic Important person of Bihar
Father's Name : Late Shri Kaviraj Ram Lakhan Singh
Mother's Name : Smt. Parmeshwari Devi
Date of Birth : 1st March, 1951.
Place of Birth : Bakhtiarpur, District - Patna, State - Bihar.
Marital Status : Married.
Date of Marriage : 22nd February, 1973.
Spouse's Name : Late Smt. Manju Kumari Sinha.
No. of Children : One.
Educational  : B.Sc. (Engineering)
Qualifications   Educated at Bihar College of Engineering, Patna, Bihar.
Profession : Political & Social Worker, Agriculturist, Engineer.
Permanent Address  : Village - Hakikatpur, PO - Bakhtiarpur, District - Patna, Bihar.
Present Address : Patna, Bihar.

Positions Held   
1985-89 : Member, Bihar Legislative Assembly.
1986-87 : Member, Committee on Petitions, Bihar Legislative Assembly.
1987-88 : President, Yuva Lok Dal, Bihar.
1987-89 : Member, Committee on Public Undertakings, Bihar Legislative Assembly.
 1989 : Secretary-General, Janata Dal, Bihar.
1989 : Elected to 9th Lok Sabha.
1989-16/7/1990 : Member, House Committee (Resigned).
4/1990-11/1990 : Union Minister of State, Agriculture and Co-operation.
1991 : Re-elected to 10th Lok Sabha (2nd term).
1991-93 : General-Secretary, Janata Dal.
Deputy Leader of Janata Dal in Parliament.
17/12/91-10/5/96 : Member, Railway Convention Committee.
8/4/93-10/5/96 : Chairman, Committee on Agriculture.
1996 : Re-elected to 11th Lok Sabha (3rd term).
Member, Committee on Estimates.
Member, General Purposes Committee.
Member, Joint Committee on the Constitution (Eighty-first Amendment Bill, 1996).
1996-98 : Member, Committee on Defence.
1998 : Re-elected to 12th Lok Sabha (4th term).
19/3/98-5/8/99 : Union Cabinet Minister, Railways.
14/4/98-5/8/99 : Union Cabinet Minister, Surface Transport (additional charge).
1999 : Re-elected to 13th Lok Sabha (5th term).
13/10/99-22/11/99 : Union Cabinet Minister, Surface Transport.
22/11/99-3/3/2000 : Union Cabinet Minister, Agriculture.
3/3/00-10/3/2000 : Chief Minister, Bihar.
27/5/00-20/3/01 : Union Cabinet Minister, Agriculture.
20/3/01-21/7/01 : Union Cabinet Minister, Agriculture with additional charge of Railways.
22/7/01-21/5/04 : Union Cabinet Minister, Railways.
2004 : Re-elected to 14th Lok Sabha (6th term).
Member, Committee on Coal & Steel.
Member, General Purposes Committee.
Member, Committee of Privileges.
Leader Janata Dal (U) Parliamentary Party, Lok Sabha.
From 24/11/2005   Chief Minister, Bihar.

Former Chief Ministers of Bihar

Topic History
Shri Krishna Singh ( 02.04.1946 - 31.01.1961 )
Shri Deep Narayan Singh ( 01.02.1961-18.02.1961 )
Shri Binonand Jha 18.02.1961-02.10.1963
Shri KB Sahay ( 02.10.1963-05.03.1967)
Shri Mahamaya Prasad Sinha ( 05.03.1967-28.01.968 )
Shri Satish Prasad Singh (28.01.1968-01.02.1968)
Shri B P Mandal (01.02.1968-02.03.1968)
Shri Bhola Paswan Shastri (22.03.1968 - 29.06.1968),
(22.06.1969 - 04.07.1969), (02.06.1971 - 09.01.1971) Government under Artilce-356 of constitution
(29.06.1968-26.02.1969) Shri Harihar Pd. Singh
(26.02.1969 - 22.06.1969) Government under Artilce-356 of constitution
(06.07.1969 - 16.02.1970) Shri Daroga Prasad Ray
(16.02.1970 - 22.12.1970) Shri Karpoori Thakur
(22.12.1970 - 02.06.1971) Shri Satish Prasad Singh
28.01.1968-01.02.1968 Government under Artilce-356 of constitution
(09.01.1972 - 19.03.1972) Shri Kedar Pandey
( 19.03.1972 - 02.07.1973) Shri Abdul Gafoor
(02.07.1973 - 11.04.1975) Shri Dr. jagannath Mishra
(11.04.1975 - 30.04.1977) (08.06.1980 - 14.08.1983)
(06.12.1989 - 10.03.1990) Government under Artilce-356 of constitution
(30.04.1977 - 24.06.1977) Shri Karpoori Thakur
(24.06.1977 - 21.04.1979) Shri Ram Sundar Das
(21.04.1979 - 17.02.1980) Government under Artilce-356 of constitution
(17.02.1980 - 08.06.1980) Shri Chandra Shekhar Singh
(14.08.1983 - 12.03.1985) Shri Bindeswari Dubey
(12.03.1985 - 13.02.1988) Shri Bhagwat Jha Azad
(14.02.1988 - 10.03.1889) Shri Satyendra Narayan Singh
(11.03.1989 - 06.12.1989) Shri Laloo Prasad
(10.03.1990 - 03.04.1995) (04.04.1995 - 25.07.1997) Smt. Rabri Devi
(25.07.1997 - 11.02.1999) (09.03.1999 - 02.03.2000) (11.03.2000 - 06.03.2005) Government under Artilce-356 of constitution
(12.02.1999 - 08.03.1999) Government under Artilce-356 of constitution
(07.03.2005 - 24.11.2005) Shri Nitish Kumar
(03.03.2000 - 10.03.2000) (24.11.2005 - Till Date)

Statistical Information Of Bihar | Based on Census 2011

Topic Census
 Physical Features

Latitude 24°-20'-10" ~ 27°-31'-15" N

Longitude82°-19'-50" ~ 88°-17'-40" E

Rural Area92,257.51 sq. kms

Urban Area1,095.49 sq. kms

Total Area94,163.00 sq. kms

Height above Sea-Level173 Feet

Normal Rainfall1,205 mm

Avg. Number of Rainy Days52.5 Days in a Year

 Administrative Units




CD Blocks534


Number of Revenue Villages45,103

Number of Urban Agglomerations14

Number of Towns199
  - Statutory Towns139
  - Non-Statutory Towns60

Police Stations853
  - Civil Police Stations813
  - Railway Police Stations40

Police Districts43
  - Civil Police District39
  - Railway Police District4

 Key Statistics - as per 2011 Census (Provisional)

  - Male5,41,85,347
  - Female4,96,19,290

Population (0~6 Years Group)
  - In Absolute Numbers1,85,82,229
  - Percentage of Total Population17.90%

  - In Absolute Numbers5,43,90,254
Male 3,27,11,975
  - Percentage of Total Population63.82%

Male 73.39%

Female 53.33%

Decadal Population Growth (2001-2011) 
  - Absolute2,08,06,128
  - As Percentage25.07%

Highest Decadal Growth atMadhepura District (30.65%)

Lowest Decadal Growth atGopalganj District (18.83%)
  - Civil Police Stations813
  - Railway Police Stations40

Density of Population1,102 per sq kms
  - Highest DensitySheohar, 1882 per sq kms
  - Lowest DensityKaimur, 488 per sq kms

Most Populous DistrictPatna: 57,72,804

Least Populous DistrictSheikhpura: 6,34,927

Sex Ratio (Females/Thousand Males)916
  - Highest Ratio(Gopalganj) 1,015
  - Lowest Ratio(Munger and Bhagalpur) 879

Highest Literacy RateRohtas, 75.59%

Lowest Literacy RatePurnia, 52.49%

Average Population of a District27,31,701


Topic Festivals
It is during the winter season that the birds from the Himalayas migrate towards the plains. With the advent of these colorful birds, celebration of sama–chakeva is done. This is a festival especially celebrated in mithila. mithilanchal dedicates this festival to the celebration of the brother sister relationship. It represents the tradition of this land as well as the art of making idols. This festival starts with the welcoming of the pair of birds sama-chakeva. Girls make clay idols of various birds and decorate them in their own traditional ways. Various rituals are performed and the festival joyfully ended with the ‘vidai’ of sama and with a wish that these birds return to this land the next year.


Topic Festivals
  Bihula is a prominent festival of eastern Bihar especially famous in Bhagalpur district. There are many myths related to this festival. People pray to goddess Mansa for the welfare of their family.


Topic Festivals
  This festival is celebrated all over mithilanchal with much enthusiasm. It is celebrated in the month of Sawan (Hindu calendar), which falls around August. This festival carries a message with itself. It teaches how to weave together religion and tradition in day-to-day life.

Educational Institutions

Topic Education
    Patna University, Patna.
    Chanakya National Law University, Patna.
    Magadh University, Bodh Gaya.
    Baba Saheb Bhim Rao Ambedkar Bihar University, Muzaffarpur.
    Tilka Manjhi, Bhagalpur University, Bhagalpur.
    Lalit Narayan Mithila University, Darbhanga.
    Kameshwar Singh Darbhanga Sanskrit University, Darbhanga.
    Jaiprakash University, Chapra.
    Bhupendra Narayan Mandal University, Madhepura.
    Vir Kunwar Singh University, Arrah.
    Nalanda Open University, Patna.
    Mazrul Haque Arabi-Farsi University, Patna.
    Rajendra Agriculture University, Pusa.

 Engineering Colleges    
    Bihar College of Engineering (Approved by AICTE, New Delhi), Patna University, Patna - 800 005.
    Bhagalpur College of Engineering (Affiliated to Tilka Manjhi Bhagalpur University), Sabour, Bhagalpur - 813 210.
    Bihar Institute of Silk and Textile, Bhagalpur, Bihar.
    College of Agricultural Engineering, Rajendra Agriculture University, Pusa, Samastipur - 848 125.
    Maulana Azad College of Engineering & Technology (Affiliated to Magadh University and approved by AICTE, New Delhi), Anisabad, Patna - 800 002.
    Muzaffarpur Institute of Technology, Muzaffarpur - 842 003.
    Sanjay Gandhi Institute of Dairy Technology, Rajendra Agriculture University, P.O. - Dhelwan, Lohiyanagar, Patna - 800 020.
    R. P. Sharma Institute of Technology (Affiliated to Magadh University and approved by AICTE, New Delhi), West of Canal Bailey Road, Patna - 800 024.

 Management Institutions   
    Chandragupt Institute of Management, Patna.
    Gaya College (Affiliated to Magadh University), Gaya, Bihar.
    Indian Institute of Business Management (Recognised by AICTE, New Delhi), Buddh Marg, Patna - 800 001.
    L.N.Mishra Institute of Economic Development and Social Changes, Patna.
    Patna Women's College (Affiliated to Patna University), Bailey Road, Patna.
    Shanti Sewa Samiti's Indian Institute of Hotel Management, 11 IAS Colony, Kidwaipuri, Patna - 800 001.

 Medical Colleges   
    Darbhanga Medical College, Laheriasarai.
    Shree Krishna Medical College, Muzaffarpur.
    Patna Medical College, Patna.
    Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College, Bhagalpur.
    A. N. Magadh Medical College, Gaya.
    Nalanda Medical College, Patna.
    Katihar Medical College, Katihar.
    Mata Gujri Medical College, Kishanganj.

 Research Institutions   
    Central Fuel Research Institute, Jalgorda.
    Rajendra Memorial Research Institute, Agamkuan, Patna.
    Bihar Research Institute, Patna.
    K. P. Jaiswal Research Institute, Patna.
    Dr. A. N. Sinha Research Institute, Patna.
    Darbhanga Research Institute, Darbhanga.

 Law Colleges   
    T.N.B. Law College, Bhagalpur.
    S.K.J. Law College, Muzaffarpur.
    A.M. Collge, Gaya.
    Maharaja College, Arrah, Bojpur.
    Patna Law College, Patna.
    Bidheh Law College, Madhubani.
    Law College, Samastipur.
    Shivanand Mandal Law College, Madhepura.
    M.S. College, Motihari.

 Ayurvedic Colleges    
    Tibbi College, Patna.
    Astang Ayurvedic College, Bhagalpur.
    Shiv Kumari Ayurvedic College, Begusarai.
    Ayurvedic College, Patna.
    Maharani Rameshwari Mahavidyalay, Darbhanga.

 Veterinary Colleges    
    Bihar Veterinary College, Patna.
    Faculty of Veterinary Science & Animal Husbandry, Samastipur.

 Agriculture/Forestry Colleges and Universities    
    Bihar Agriculture College, Bhagalpur.
    Tirhut College of Agriculture, Muzaffarpur.
    Rajendra Agriculture University, Pusa, Samastipur.
    Faculty of Forestry Science, Samastipur.

 Fine Arts Colleges   
    Faculty of Fine Arts and Crafts, Bhagalpur University.
    Govt. College of Arts and Crafts, Patna.

 Laboratory and Research Centres    
    T.B. Demonstration and Training Centre, Patna.
    T.B. Demonstration and Training Centre, Darbhanga.
    Central Fuel Research Institute, Jalgorda.
    Nav Nalanda Mahavihar, Patna.

 Other Institutions   
    Bihar College of Pharmacy, New Bailey Road, Patna - 801 503.
    Bihar Flying Institute, Civil Aerodrome, Patna.
    Kishanganj Pharmacy College, Kishanganj - 855 107.
    National Institute of Physiotherapy and Communication Disorders, PMP Bhawan, Kashi Nath Lane, East Lohanipur, Patna - 800 003.
    Patliputra College of Pharmacy, PO - Bihar Veterinary College Campus, New Bailey Road, Patna - 800 014.
    R.L.S.Yadav College of Pharmacy, Reshmi Complex, Kidwaipuri, Patna - 800 002.
    Netraheen Chatra Vidyalay, Bhagalpur.
    Balika Mahavidyalay, Lakhisarai.
    Bihar Rashtrabhasha Parishad, Patna.
    Prakrit Jain Shastra Aur Ahinsa Sansthan, Vaishali.
    A.N.Sinha Samaj Adhyayan Sansthan, Patna.
    Madersa Ajeejeeya, Bihar Sharif, Nalanda.
    Science College, Patna.
    Muk Badhir Vidyalay, Patna.

Transfer order of District Welfare offier, Block Welfare Officer for SC/ST welfare Department

Topic Bihar News
Transfer/Promotion List for SC/ST welfare Department

District Welfare Officer [Download List List1 |  List2]

Block Welfare Officer [Download]

Assistant Teacher of SC/ST Residential High/Primary/Middle School [Download]

LDC/Clerk Teacher of SC/ST Residential High/Primary/Middle School [Download]

Head Master/Assistant Teacher of SC/ST Residential High/Primary/Middle School [Download]

For More information visit 


Topic Other Topic
The project HORTNET - Horticultural Informatics Network perhaps is first of its kind in the e-Agriculture history of the country, where total transparency has been ensured in all the processes of workflow i.e., online application filing, authentication, processing and online payment to the beneficiary’s bank account besides SMS based e-alerting is being done online effectively and efficiently. The objective of the project is to promote holistic growth of the horticulture sector covering fruits, vegetables, roots and tuber crops, mushroom, spices, flowers, aromatic plants, cashew and cocoa. 
Farmers can apply online 24x7, from anywhere for the schemes of Horticulture Department by avoiding middlemen. They can also check the status of their application online. The system credits the subsidies to farmers bank accounts directly and intimates the same to their mobiles via SMS. The monthly progress reporting and its consolidation helps in conducting review meetings and release of funds. The system helps in releasing of funds transparently based on actual reports. The system automates the complete workflow in beneficiary selection and subsidy and input supplies distribution. The system is interfaced with Bank software so that acquitances are immediately effected. It communicates to the beneficiaries through SMS.
The project HORTNET was started to bring total transparency, for digital inclusion of farming community, to avoid delays, to remove subjectivity, to eliminate errors associate with manual systems and to link all stakeholders. The scope of the system is entire country wherever the National Horticulture Mission Project is being implemented. The Horticulture Department, Andhra Pradesh got Horticulture Leadership Award 2010 for streamlining dataflow. The web-based work flow system has been developed as a pilot in Andhra Pradesh for National Horticulture Mission by National Informatics Centre (NIC).
For more details on HORTNET, please visit

Post Matric Scholarships for Scheduled Castes /Scheduled Tribes Students

Topic Government and Administration
The Post Matric Scholarships enables a considerable number of Scheduled Caste students to obtain post-matric and higher level of education resulting in their over all educational and economic development. The Scheme provides for 100 per cent Central Assistance to the State Governments and UT Administrations over and above the respective committed liability of the State/UT. The committed liability of the North Eastern States has, however, been dispensed with. The scheme presently covers over 30 lakh Scheduled Caste students.

NGO Partnership System

Topic Refrences
Planning Commission of India invites all Voluntary Organizations / Non-Governmental Organizations to Sign Up on the NGO Partnership System (NGO-PS) at

This will enable you to:
  • Get details of existing VOs / NGOs across India
  • Get details of grant schemes of key Ministries/Departments
  • Apply on - line for NGO grants
  • Track status of your application for grants
This is a free facility located in the Planning Commission in association with National Informatics Centre to bring about greater partnership between government & the voluntary sector and foster better transparency, efficiency and accountability.
 Ministry of Culture, Ministry of Health & Family Welfare, Ministry of Social Justice & Empowerment, Ministry of Tribal Affairs, Ministry of Women & Child Development, Department of Higher Education, Department of School Education & Literacy, Council for Advancement of People's Action and Rural Technology (CAPART)

Swarnajayanti Gram Swarojgar Yojna

Topic Government and Administration
This programme was launched in April, 1999. This is a holistic programme covering all aspects of self employment such as organisation of the poor into self help groups, training, credit, technology, infrastructure and marketing.

The objective of SGSY is to provide sustainable income to the rural poor. The programme aims at establishing a large number of micro-enterprises in the rural areas, based upon the potential of the rural poor. It is envisaged that every family assisted under SGSY will be brought above the poverty-line with in a period of three years.

This programme covers families below poverty line in rural areas of the country. Within this target group, special safeguards have been provided by reserving 50% of benefits for SCs/STs, 40% for women and 3% for physically handicapped persons. Subject to the availability of the funds, it is proposed to cover 30% of the rural poor in each block in the next 5 years.

SGSY is a Centrally Sponsored Scheme and funding is shared by the Central and State Governments in the ratio of 75:25 respectively.

SGSY is a Credit-cum-Subsidy programme. It covers all aspects of self-employment, such as organisation of the poor into self-help groups, training, credit technology, infrastructure and marketing. Efforts would be made to involve women members in each self-help group. SGSY lays emphasis on activity clusters. Four-five activities will be identified for each block with the approval of Panchayat Samities. The Gram sabha will authenticate the list of families below the poverty line identified in BPL census. Identification of individual families suitable for each key activity will be made through a participatory process. Closer attention will be paid on skill development of the beneficiaries, known as swarozgaris, and their technology and marketing needs.

How to Seek Assistance:
For assistance under the programme, District Rural Development Agencies and Block Development Officers may be contacted.

Jawahar Gram Samriddhi Yojna

Topic Government and Administration
The critical importance of rural infrastructure in the development of village economy is well known. A number of steps have been initiated by the Central as well as the State Governments for building the rural infrastructure. The public works programme have also contributed significantly in this direction.

Jawahar Gram Samridhi Yojna (JGSY) is the restructured, streamlined and comprehensive version of the erstwhile Jawahar Rozagar Yojana. Designed to improve the quality of life of the poor, JGSY has been launched on 1st April, 1999. The primary objective of the JGSY is the creation of demand driven community village infrastructure including durable assets at the village level and assets to enable the rural poor to increase the opportunities for sustained employment. The secondary objective is the generation of supplementary employment for the unemployed poor in the rural areas. The wage employment under the programme shall be given to Below Poverty Line(BPL) families.

JGSY is implemented entirely at the village Panchayat level. Village Panchayat is the sole authority for preparation of the Annual Plan and its implementation.

The programme will be implemented as Centrally Sponsored Scheme on cost sharing basis between the Centre and the State in the ratio of 75:25 respectively.

The programme is to be implemented by the Village Panchayats with the approval of Gram sabha. No other administrative or technical approval will be required. For works/schemes costing more than 50,000/-, after taking the approval of the Gram Sabah, the Village Panchayat shall seek the technical/administrative approval of appropriate authorities. Panchayats may spend upto 15% of allocation on maintenance of assets created under the programme within its geographical boundary. 22.5% of JGSY funds have been enmarked for individual beneficiary schemes for SC/STs. 3% of annual allocation would be utilised for creation of barrier free infrastructure for the disabled. The funds to the Village Panchayats will be allocated on the basis of the population. The upper ceiling of 10,000 population has been removed.

How to Seek Assistance:
Village Pradhan, Panchayat members, Block Development Officer, District Collector or District Rural Development Agency may be contacted.

Indira Aawas Yojna

Topic Government and Administration
 Indira Aawas Yojna is the flagship rural housing scheme which is being implemented by the Government of India with an aim of providing shelter to the poor below poverty line. The Government of India has decided that allocation of funds under IAY (Indira Awas Yojna)will be on the basis of poverty ratio and housing shortage.

The objective of  Indira Aawas Yojna is primarily to help construction of new dwelling units as well as conversion of unserviceable kutcha houses into pucca/semi-pucca by members of SC/STs, freed bonded labourers and also non-SC/ST rural poor below the poverty line by extending them grant-in-aid.

IAY is a beneficiary-oriented programme aimed at providing houses for SC/ST households who are victims of atrocities, households headed by widows/unmarried women and SC/ST households who are below the poverty line. This scheme has been in effect from 1st April, 1999.

IAY is a Centrally Sponsored Scheme funded on cost sharing basis between the Govt. of India and the States in the ratio of 75:25 respectively.

Grant of Rs. 20,000/- per unit is provided in the plain areas and Rs. 22,000/- in hilly/difficult areas for the construction of a house. For conversion of a kutcha house into in pucca house, Rs. 10,000/- is provided. Sanitary laterines and chulahs are integral part of the house. In construction/upgradation of the house, cost effective and enviornment friendly technologies, materials and designs are encouraged. The household is alloted in the name of a female member of beneficiary household.

How to Seek Assistance:
The person concerned should contact the Village Panchayat or Village Level Worker or the Block Development Officer or District Rural Development Agency.

DRDA Administration

Topic Government and Administration
District Rural Development Agency (DRDA) has traditionally been the principal organ at the District level to oversee the implementation of the anti-poverty programmes of the Ministry of Rural Development. Created originally for implementation of Integrated Rural Development Programme (IRDP), the DRDAs were subsequently entrusted with a number of programmes, both of the Central and State Governments. Since inception, the administrative costs of the DRDA (District Rural Development Agency) were met by setting aside a part of the allocations for each programme. Of late, the number of programmes had increased and several programmes have been restructured with a view to making them more effective. While an indicative staffing structure was provided to the DRDAs, experience showed that there was no uniformity in the staffing structure. It is in this context that a new centrally sponsored scheme - DRDA Administration - has been introduced from 1st April, 1999 based on the recommendations of an inter-ministerial committee known as Shankar Committee. The new scheme replaces the earlier practice of allocating percentage of programme funds to the administrative costs.

The objective of the scheme of DRDA (District Rural Development Agency) Administration is to strengthen the DRDAs and to make them more professional and effective. Under the scheme, DRDA is visualised as specialised agency capable of managing anti-poverty programmes of the Ministry on the one hand and effectively relate these to the overall efforts of poverty eradication in the district on the other.

The funding pattern of the programme will be in the ratio of 75:25 between the Centre and the States.

The DRDA will continue to watch over and ensure effective utilisation of the funds intended for anti-poverty programmes. It will need to develop distinctive capabilities for poverty eradication. It will perform tasks which are different from Panchayati Raj Institutions and line departments. The DRDAs would deal only with the anti-poverty programmes of the Ministry of Rural Development. If DRDAs are to be entrusted with programmes of other Ministries or those of the State Governments, it must be ensured that these have a definite anti-poverty focus. In respect of such States where DRDA does not have a separate identity and separate accounts.

Community Development

Topic Government and Administration
The State Govt. launched a scheme in 1980-81 to enable the members of legislature to execute the small schemes of their choice that are developmental and are based on immediate felt local needs, as per the guidelines issued for this purpose. Under this scheme Rs.50.00 lakh has to be provided to each member of the State Legislative.

The objective of this scheme is to facilitate immediate execution of locally important schemes, whose execution may otherwise span over a large period - as per the list of Do's and Don't indicated in the guidelines.

This is a State Plan Scheme whose expenditure is fully borne by the State Government.

Each legislator is supposed to indicate choice of schemes to the tune of Rs fifty lakhs per year to br taken up in his/her constituency to the concerned Deputy Development Commissioner, which will get them implemented by following the established procedures contained in the guidelines and circulars issued by the Rural Development Department.

Contact Info:
Local MLA/MLC may be contacted for schemes to be taken up under Community Development Programme.

Drought-Prone Areas Programme

Topic Government and Administration
The Drought Prone Areas Programme (DPAP) aims at mitigating the adverse effects of drought on the production of crops and livestock and productivity of land, water and human resources. It strives to encourage restoration of ecological balance and seeks to improve the economic and social conditions of the poor and the disadvantaged sections of the rural community.

DPAP is a people's programme with Government assistance. There is a special arrangement for maintenance of assets and social audit by Panchayati Raj Institutions. Development of all categories of land belonging to Gram Panchayats, Government and individuals fall within the limits of the selected watersheds for development.

Allocation is to be shared equally by the Centre and State Govt. on 75:25 basis. Watershed community is to contribute for maintenance of assets created. Utilisation of 50% of allocation under the Employment Assurance Scheme (EAS) is for the watershed development. Funds are directly released to Zila Parishads/District Rural Development Agencies (DRDAs) to sanction projects and release funds to Watershed Committees and Project Implementation Agencies.

Village community, including self-help/user groups, undertake area development by planning and implementation of projects on watershed basis through Watershed Associations and Watershed Committees constituted from among themselves. The Government supplements their work by creating social awareness, imparting training and providing technical support through project implementation agencies.

How to Seek Assistance:
Non-Government organisations can approach the District Rural Development Agency (DRDA) for appointment as Project Implementation Agencies.

Credit-cum-Subsidy Scheme for Rural Housing

Topic Government and Administration
There were a large number of households in the rural areas which could not be covered under the IAY, as either they do not fall into the range of eligibility or due to the limits imposed by the available budget. On the other hand due to limited repayment capacity, these rural households cannot take benefit of fully loan based schemes offered by some of the housing finance institutions. The need of this majority can be met through a scheme which is part credit and part subsidy based.

The objective of this scheme for rural housing is to facilitate construction of houses for rural families who have some repayment capacity. The scheme aims at eradicating shelterlessness from the rural area of the country.

The scheme provides shelter to rural families who have not been coveted under IAY and who are desirous of possessing a house. All rural households having annual income up to Rs. 32,000/- are covered under this scheme.

The funds are shared by the Centre and the State in the ratio of 75:25 respectively.

Rural poor just above the poverty line are entitled to get the benefits of the scheme. A maximum subsidy of Rs. 10,000/- per unit is provided for the construction of a house. Sanitary latrine and smokeless chulha are integral part of the house. Cost effective and enviornment friendly technologies, materials, designs, etc. are encouraged. Sixty per cent (60%) of the houses are allocated to SC/ST rural poor.

How to Seek Assistance:
State Governments decide the implementing agency, which may be the State Housing Board, State Housing Corporation, specified scheduled Commercial bank, Housing Finance Institution or the DRDA/ZP. The person desirous of getting benefit of the scheme may approach the implementing agency.

Bihar Public Grievance Redressal System

Topic Government and Administration
The Program "JANTA KE DARBAAR MEIN MUKHYAMANTRI" is being held on every Monday at 1, Anne Marg, Patna. The Programe is for the redressal of public grievances on various issues.
BPGRS is the Bihar Public Grievance Redressal System.
Visit for Submit New Petition (आवेदन), Know your Petition Status

Nalanda Open University invites Application for Admission on Various Courses.

Topic Bihar News
Nalanda Open University invites Application for Admission on Various Courses.
·         MA
·         M.Com
·         M.Sc
·         B.A(Hons)
·         B.Sc
·         BCA
·         MCA
·         BLIS
·         Journalism & Mass Communication

You Can Apply between 12.07.2011 to 16.08.201

Result of Bihar Public Service Commission(PT) Exam 2011

Topic Bihar News
Bihar Public Service Commission Declare the Result of PT Examination which was held on 17.04.2011 on 34 Districts of Bihar. 15135 Candidates are successfully selected for Mains Examination. BPSC also published the cutoff marks category wise. BPSC will published the marks sheet of individual(Candidates) on 20th July 2011.BPSC will give advertisement notification for those student who pass in PT examination for Main Examination. So  check your result of Commission website. Please share your result with us through comment.

PlanPlus - Decentralized Planning System

Topic Government and Administration
Many attempts were made by the Government of India to introduce decentralized planning for development; however, they did not succeed as a proper enabling framework was not in place, both for planning and integration of developmental activities at the micro level. Recently, the Planning Commission issued a guideline mandating that all plans starting from XIth Plan period onwards should be prepared bottom up, in a decentralized manner. Backward Regions Grant Fund (BRGF) scheme of the Ministry of Panchayati Raj was the first scheme to adopt the Planning Commission guidelines in to -to and all BRGF states have been directed to prepare a district Plan document as against a BRGF Plan. PlanPlus is a software developed by NIC, under guidance and direction from Ministry of Panchayati Raj, in order to demystify and strengthen the decentralized planning process. The software is a web-based software and captures the entire planning workflow starting from identification of needs, the plan approval process till the final approval by the District Planning Committee. The software is highly generic and can be extended to capture the plans prepared by line departments at the state and central level to generate the National Plan. The software :
  • Facilitates decentralized planning process in local language
  • Captures the planning workflow
  • Converges the flow of funds from different sources
  • Converges the rural and urban plans to generate an integrated district plan
  • Brings about total transparency in the plan approval process
  • Provides role based authentication and authorization
  • Acts as a decision support tool through the use of supporting GIS and graphs


Topic History

History of Bihar


Bihar, the ancient land of Buddha, has witnessed golden period of Indian history. It is the same land where the seeds of the first republic were sown and which cultivated the first crop of democracy. Such fertile is the soil that has given birth to innumerous intellectuals which spread the light of knowledge and wisdom not only in the country but in the whole world. The state has its capital at Patna, which is situated on the bank of the holy river Ganga. The state as it is today has been shaped from its partition from the province of Bengal and most recently after the separation of the tribal southern region now called Jharkhand.

  Ancient History  

The history of the land mass currently known as Bihar is very ancient. In fact, it extends to the very dawn of human civilization. Earliest myths and legends of hinduism the Sanatana (Eternal) Dharma - are associated with Bihar. Sita, the consort of Lord Rama, was a princess of Bihar. She was the daughter of King Janak of Videha. The present districts of Muzaffarpur, Sitamarhi, Samastipur, Madhubani, and Darbhanga, in north-central Bihar, mark this ancient kingdom. The present small township of Sitamarhi is located here. According to legend, the birthplace of Sita is Punaura, located on the west-side of Sitamarhi, the headquarters of the district. Janakpur, the capital of King Janak, and the place where Lord Rama and Sita were married, lies just across the border in Nepal. It is reached via the rail station of Janakapur Road located in the Sitamarhi district, on the Narkatiyaganj - Darbhanga section of the North-Eastern Railway. It is no accident, therefore, that the original author of the Hindu epic - The Ramayana - Maharishi Valmiki - lived in Ancient Bihar. Valmikinagar is a small town and a railroad station in the district of West Champaran, close to the railhead of Narkatiyaganj in northwest Bihar. The word Champaran is derived from champa-arnya, or a forest of the fragrant Champa (magnolia) tree.

It was here that Prince Gautam attained enlightenment, became the Buddha- at the present Bodh Gaya- a town in central Bihar; and the great religion of buddhism was born. It is here also that Lord Mahavira, the founder of another great religion, Jainism, was born and attained nirvana (death). That site is located at the present town of pawapuri, some miles to the south east of patna, the Capital of Bihar., it is here that the tenth and last Guru of the Sikhs, Guru Gobind Singh was born and attained the sainthood of sikhism, that is became a Guru. A lovely and majestic Gurudwara (a temple for Sikhs) built to commemorate his memory - the harmandir- is located in eastern Patna. Known reverentially as the Patna Sahib, it is one of the five holiest places of worhip (Takhat) for Sikhs.

The ancient kingdoms of Magadh and of Licchavis, around about 7-8th century B.C., produced rulers who devised a system of administration that truly is progenitor of the modern art of statecraft, and of the linkage of statecraft with economics. Kautilya, the author of Arthashastra, the first treatise of the modern science of Economics, lived here. Also known as Chanakya, he was the wily and canny adviser to the Magadh king, Chandragupta Maurya. As an emissary of Chandragupta Maurya, Chanakya traveled far and wide in pursuit of promoting the interests of the State and dealing with the Greek invaders settled in the northwest of India, along the Indus valley. He succeeded in preventing the further onslaught of the Greeks. Indeed, he brought about amicable co-existence between the Greeks and the Mauryan Empire. Megasthenes, an emissary of Alexander's General, Seleucus Necator, lived in Pataliputra (ancient name of Patna, the Mauryan capital) around 302 B.C. He left behind a chronicle of life in and around Patliputra. This is the first recorded account by a foreign traveler in India. It describes in vivid terms the grandeur of life in Patliputra, a city established by King Ajatshatru, around 5th Century B.C., at the confluence of the rivers Sone and Ganga.

Another Mauryan king, Ashok, (also known as Priyadarshi or Priyadassi), around 270 B.C., was the first to formulate firm tenets for the governance of a people. He had these tenets, the so called Edicts of Ashok, inscribed on stone pillars which were planted across his kingdom. The pillar were crowned with the statue of one or more lions sitting on top of a pedestal which was inscribed with symbols of wheels. As the lion denoted strength, the wheel denoted the eternal (endless) nature of truth (dharma), hence the name Dharma (or Dhamma) Chakra. This figure of lions, atop a pedestal, with inscription of a wheel, was adopted as the Official Seal of the independent Republic of India (1947). Also, Ashok's dharma chakra was incorporated into the national flag of India, the Indian tricolor. Remains of a few of these pillars are still extant, for example at Lauriya-Nandan Garh in the district of West Champaran and at vaishali, in the present district of the same name. Ashok, a contemporary of Ptolemy and Euclid, was a great conqueror. His empire extended from what is now the North West Frontier Province (in Pakistan) in the west, to the eastern boundaries of present India in the north, and certainly, up to the Vindhyan Range in the south. Ashok was responsible also for the widespread proselytization of people into Buddhism. He sent his son, Prince Mahendra, and daughter, Sanghamitra, for this purpose to as far south as the present country of Sri Lanka (Sinhal Dweep in ancient times, and Ceylon during the British Empire. Some historians, particularly Sinhalese, consider Mahindra and Sanghmitra as brother and sister.

Ancient Bihar also saw the glorification of women in matters of state affairs. It was here that Amrapali, a courtesan of Vaishali (the present district of the same name) in the kingdom of the Lichhavis, attained and wielded enormous power. It is said that the Lord Buddha, during his visit to Vaishali, refused the invitation of many princes, and chose to have dinner with Amrapali instead. Such was the status of women in the Bihari society of several centuries B.C.!

A little-known, but historically and archaeologically documented, event is worth mentioning in this context. After his visit with Amrapali, Lord Buddha continued with his journey towards Kushinagar (also called Kusinara in Buddhist texts.) He travelled along the eastern banks of the river Gandak (also called Narayani, which marks the western border of Champaran, a district now administratively split into two- West and East Champaran.) A band of his devoted Licchavis accompanied Lord Buddha in this journey. At a spot known as Kesariya, in the present Purbi (meaning, East) Champaran district, Lord Buddha took rest for the night. It was here that he chose to announce to his disciples the news of his impending niravana (meaning, death); and implored them to return to Vaishali. The wildly lamenting Licchavis would have none of that. They steadfastly refused to leave. Whereupon, Lord Buddha, by creating a 3,000 feet wide stream between them and himself compelled them to leave. As a souvenir he gave them his alms-bowl. The Licchavis, most reluctantly and expressing their sorrow wildly, took leave and built a stupa there to commemorate the event. Lord Buddha had chosen that spot to announce his impending nirvana because, as he told his disciple Anand, he knew that in a previous life he had ruled from that place, namely, Kesariya, as a Chakravarti Raja, Raja Ben. (Again, this is not just a mere legend, myth or folk-lore. Rather, it is a historiclly documented fact supported by archaeological findings. However, neither this part of Buddha's life, nor the little town of Kesariya, is well-known even in India or Bihar.

At Nalanda, the world's first seat of higher learning, an university, was established during the Gupta period. It continued as a seat of learning till the middle ages, when the muslim invaders burned it down. The ruins are a protected monument and a popular tourist spot. A museum and a learning center- The Nava Nalanda Mahavira - are located here.

Nearby, Rajgir, was capital of the Muaryan Empire during the reign of Bimbisara. It was frequently visited by Lord Buddha and Lord Mahavira. There are many Buddhist ruins here. It is also well-known for its many hot-springs which, like similar hot-springs elsewhere in the world, are reputed to have medicinal property.

  Medieval History  

This glorious history of Bihar lasted till around the middle of the 7th or 8th century A.D. - the Gupta Period - when, with the conquest of almost all of northern India by invaders from the middle-east, the Gupta dynasty also fell a victim.

In medieval times Bihar lost its prestige as the political and cultural center of India. The Mughal period was a period of unremarkable provincial administration from Delhi. The only remarkable person of these times in Bihar was Sher Shah, or Sher Khan Sur, an Afghan. Based at Sasaram which is now a town in the district of the same name in central-western Bihar, this jagirdar of the Mughal King Babur was successful in defeating Humayun, the son of Babur, twice - once at Chausa and then, again, at Kannauj (in the present state of Uttar Pradesh or U.P.) Through his conquest Sher Shah became the ruler of a territory that, again, extended all the way to the Punjab. He was noted as a ferocious warrior but also a noble administrator - in the tradition of Ashok and the Gupta kings. Several acts of land reform are attributed to him. The remains of a grand mausoleum that he built for himself can be seen in today's Sasaram (Sher Shah's maqbara.)

  Modern History  

During most of British India, Bihar was a part of the Presidency of Bengal, and was governed from Calcutta. As such, this was a territory very much dominated by the people of Bengal. All leading educational and medical centers were in Bengal. In spite of the unfair advantage that Bengalis possessed, some sons of Bihar rose to positions of prominence, by dint of their intelligence and hard labor. One such was Rajendra Prasad, native of Ziradei, in the district of Saran. He became the first President of the Republic of India.

When separated from the Bengal Presidency in 1912, Bihar and Orissa comprised a single province. Later, under the Government of India Act of 1935, the Division of Orissa became a separate province; and the Province of Bihar came into being as an administrative unit of British India. At Independence in 1947, the State of Bihar, with the same geographic boundary, formed a part of the Republic of India, until 1956. At that time, an area in the south-east, predominantly the district of Purulia, was separated and incorporated into West Bengal as part of the Linguistic Reorganization of Indian States.

Resurgence in the history of Bihar came during the struggle for India's independence. It was from Bihar that Mahatma Gandhi launched his civil-disobedience movement, which ultimately led to India's independence. At the persistent request of a farmer, Raj Kumar Shukla, from the district of Champaran, in 1917 Gandhiji took a train ride to Motihari, the district headquarters of Champaran. Here he learned, first hand, the sad plight of the indigo farmers suffering under the oppressive rule of the British. Alarmed at the tumultuous reception Gandhiji received in Champaran, the British authorities served notice on him to leave the Province of Bihar. Gandhiji refused to comply, saying that as an Indian he was free to travel anywhere in his own country. For this act of defiance he was detained in the district jail at Motihari. From his jail cell, with the help of his friend from South Africa days, C. F. Andrews, Gandhiji managed to send letters to journalists and the Viceroy of India describing what he saw in Champaran, and made formal demands for the emancipation of these people. When produced in court, the Magistrate ordered him released, but on payment of bail. Gandhiji refused to pay the bail. Instead, he indicated his preference to remain in jail under arrest. Alarmed at the huge response Gandhiji was receiving from the people of Champaran, and intimidated by the knowledge that Gandhiji had already managed to inform the Viceroy of the mistreatment of the farmers by the British plantation owners, the magistrate set him free, without payment of any bail. This was the first instance of the success of civil-disobedience as a tool to win freedom. The British received, their first "object lesson" of the power of civil-disobedience. It also made the British authorities recognize, for the first time, Gandhiji as a national leader of some consequence. What Raj Kumar Shukla had started, and the massive response people of Champaran gave to Gandhiji, catapulted his reputation throughout India. Thus, in 1917, began a series of events in a remote corner of Bihar, that ultimately led to the freedom of India in 1947.

Sir Richard Attenborough's award winning film, "Gandhi", authentically, and at some length, depicts the above episode. (Raj Kumar Shukla is not mentioned by his name in the film, however.) The two images here are from that film. The bearded gentleman, just behind Gandhiji, in the picture on the left, and on the elephant at right, is Raj Kumar Shukla.

Gandhiji, in his usual joking way, had commented that in Champaran he "found elephants just as common as bullock carts in (his native) Gujarat"!!

It was natural, therefore, that many people from Bihar became leading participants in India's struggle for independence. Dr. Rajendra Prasad has been mentioned above. Another was Jay Prakash Narayan, affectionately called JP. JP's substantial contribution to modern Indian history continued up until his death in 1979. It was he who steadfastly and staunchly opposed the autocratic rule of Indira Gandhi and her younger son, Sanjay Gandhi. Fearing people's reaction to his opposition, Indira Gandhi had him arrested on the eve of declaring National Emergency beginning June 26, 1975. He was put in the Tihar Jail, located near Delhi, where notorious criminals are jailed. Thus, in Free India, this septuagenarian, who had fought for India's freedom alongside Indira Gandhi's father, Jawahar Lal Nehru, received a treatment that was worse than what the British had meted out to Gandhiji in Champaran in 1917, for his speaking out against oppression. The movement started by JP, however, brought the Emergency to an end, led to the massive defeat of Indira Gandhi and her Congress Party at the polls, and, to the installation of a non-Congress government -The Janata Party - at Delhi, for the first time. With the blessings of JP, Morarji Desai became the fourth Prime Minister of India. JP remained the Conscience of the Janata Party and of post-Gandhi - post-Nehru India. He gave a call to all Indians to work ceaselessly towards eliminating "dictatorship in favour of democracy" and bringing about "freedom from slavery". Sadly, soon after attaining power, bickering began among the leaders of the Janata Party which led to the resignation of Shri Desai as the Prime Minister. JP continued with his call for "total revolution" (sampporna kranti), but he succumbed to kidney failure at a hospital in Bombay in 1979.

Subsequent bickering in the Janata Party led to the formation of a breakaway political party - the Janata Dal. This political party is a constituent unit of the current ruling coalition at Delhi, the so called, United Front. It was also from this party that Laloo Prasad Yadav, the Chief Minister of Bihar was elected. The bickering continued. A new party led by Mr. Yadav was formed as - the Rashtriya Janata Dal - which went on to rule for almost 15 years in Bihar.

This was also a period when Hindi literature came to flourish in the state. Raja Radhika Raman Singh, Shiva Pujan Sahay, Divakar Prasad Vidyarthy, Ramdhari Singh Dinkar, Ram Briksha Benipuri, are some of the luminaries who contributed to the flowering of Hindi literature, which did not have much of a long history. The Hindi language, certainly its literature, began around mid to late nineteenth century. It is marked by the appearance of Bhartendu Babu Harischandra's ( a resident of Varanasi in U.P.) drama "Harischandra". Devaki Nandan Khatri began writing his mystery novels in Hindi during this time (Chandrakanta, Chandrakanta Santati, Kajar ki Kothari, Bhootnath, etc.) He was born at Muzaffarpur in Bihar and had his earlier education there. He then moved to Tekari Estate in Gaya in Bihar. He later became an employee of the Raja of Benares (now Varanasi.) He started a printing press called "Lahari" which began the publication of a Hindi monthly, "Sudarshan", in 1898. One of the first short stories in Hindi, if not the very first, was "Indumati" (Pundit Kishorilal Goswami, author) which was published in 1900. The collection of short stories "Rajani aur Taare" (Anupam Prakashan, Patna, publishers) contains an extended history of the origin and evolution of the short story as a distinct literary form in the Hindi literature.


For its geographical location, natural beauty, mythological and historical importance, Bihar feels proud of the assets it has been gifted by time. And for its moral contributions in the fields of arts-literature and religion and spiritualism, it knows no competitors centuries old stories related to this land are told even today. The state is the same kingdom, which once upon a time ruled the country as well as the neighbouring countries . Many great rulers have lived here and it fills us with a sense of pride when we think of Bihar as the 'Karmabhumi' of Buddha and Mahavir. Bihar, to liven up the glorious tale of which land, words fall short.

Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA)

Topic About Bihar
Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA) is Government of India's flagship programme for achievement of Universalization of Elementary Education (UEE) in a time bound manner, as mandated by 86th amendment to the Constitution of India making free and compulsory Education to the Children of 6-14 years age group, a Fundamental Right.

SSA is being implemented in partnership with State Governments to cover the entire country and address the needs of 192 million children in 1.1 million habitations.

The programme seeks to open new schools in those habitations which do not have schooling facilities and strengthen existing school infrastructure through provision of additional class rooms, toilets, drinking water, maintenance grant and school improvement grants.

Existing schools with inadequate teacher strength are provided with additional teachers, while the capacity of existing teachers is being strengthened by extensive training, grants for developing teaching-learning materials and strengthening of the academic support structure at a cluster, block and district level.

SSA seeks to provide quality elementary education including life skills. SSA has a special focus on girl's education and children with special needs. SSA also seeks to provide computer education to bridge the digital divide.

Website -

Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA) :

Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS) , Bihar

Topic Government and Administration
Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS) in response to the challenge of meeting the holistic needs of the child, launched initially in 33 blocks, on October 2, 1975, that is, 30 years ago.

Today, the Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS) is on of the world's largest and most unique outreach programmes for early children. It is widely acknowledged that the young child is most vulnerable to malnutrition, morbidity, resultant disability and mortality. The Early years are the most crucial period in life., when the foundations for cognitive, social, emotional, language, physical/motor development and life long learning are laid, recognizing that early childhood development constitutes the foundation of human development, ICDS is designed to promote holistic development of children under six years, through the strengthened capacity of caregivers and communities and improved access to basic services, at the community level. The programme is specifically designed to reach effective disparity reduction.

The programme provides an integrated approach for converging basic services for improved childcare, early stimulation and learning, health and nutrition, water and environmental sanitation targeting young children, expectant and nursing mothers and women's a/ adolescent girls' groups. They are reached through nearly 60,000 trained community-based Anganwadi Workers and an equal number of helpers, supportive community structures/women's groups- through the Anganwadi centre, the groups system and in the community.

ICDS is powerful outreach programme to help achieve major national nutrition and health goals. Embodied in the National Plan of Action for Children. It also contributed to the national goal of universal primary education.

ICDS provides increased opportunities for promoting early development, associated with primary stage and by releasing girls from the burden of sibling care, to enable them to participate in primary education.

Poised for universal coverage by the turn of the century, ICDS today reaches out to roughly on million expectant and nursing mothers and roughly 5 Million children (under six years of age), of disadvantaged groups in Bihar. Of these, 2.5 million children (three to six years of age) participate in centre-based pre-school education activities.

The network consists of 393 projects, covering nearly, 72 percent of the state community development blocks and the services are being provided through 60587 Anganwadi Centers are as follows:

    * Improve the nutritional and health status of children below the age of six years.
    * Lay the foundation for the proper psychological, physical and social development of the child.
    * Reduce the incidence of mortality, morbidity, malnutrition and school dropouts.
    * Achieve effective coordination of policy and implementation among various departments to promote child development.
    * Enhance the capability of the mother to took after the normal health and nutritional needs of the child, through proper health and nutrition education.


    * Immunization
    * Health check-ups
    * Referral services
    * Treatment of minor illnesses


    * Supplementary feeding
    * Growth monitoring and promotion
    * Nutrition and Health Education (NHED)

Early Childhood Care And Pre-School Education

    * To children in the age groups of three to six years.


    * Of other supportive services, such as safe drinking water, environmental sanitation, women's empowerment programmes, non-formal education and adult literacy.

Visit for more information

Vasudha Kendras (CSC)

Topic Government and Administration
The Government of India has launched the National e-Governance Plan (NeGP) for delivering e-Government services at the doorsteps of the rural citizens of India.  The front-end interface of the NeGP with the rural citizens is the Common Services Centers (CSC) through which the Government Services along with other value added services would be delivered to the citizens. The aim of the Scheme is not merely to roll out IT infrastructure but to build a network of 100,000+ rural businesses across India.

The Government of Bihar in its Endeavour to improve the quality of governance in the State, has involved public/ private enterprises to participate in the CSC scheme as Service Centre Agencies (SCAs) for establishing and operating 8463 CSCs in rural areas of Bihar. In Bihar the scheme has been christened asVasudha Kendras. These Vasudha Kendras would offer a multitude of services ranging in the areas of e-Government, education, health, agriculture, commercial, retail, etc. It is to be noted that delivery of Government services would be mandatory for the Vasudha Kendras.

To implement the Vasudha Kendras three Service Center Agencies (SCA) namely SREI Sahaj, Zoom Connect and SARK Systems has been selected. These SCAs will select the Village Level Entreprenuers (VLE), will provide them the requisite hardware, will train them and will ensure the delivery of various Business to Citizen Services. As soon as the back-end computerization of Government department is completed Government to Citizen centric services will be launched through these Vasudha Kendras in phases. At present around 4500 Vasudha Kendras are up and running in all the 38 districts of the State of Bihar.

Kasturba Gandhi Balika Vidyalaya (KGBV)

Topic Government and Administration
Kasturba Gandhi Balika Vidyalaya (KGBV)

Kasturba Gandhi Balika Vidyalaya (KGBV) is a scheme launched in July 2004, for setting up residential schools at upper primary level for girls belonging predominantly to the SC, ST, OBC and minority communities. The scheme is being implemented in educationally backward blocks of the country where the female rural literacy is below the national average and gender gap in literacy is above the national average. The scheme provides for a minimum reservation of 75% of the seats for girls belonging to SC, ST, OBC or minority communities and priority for the remaining 25%, is accorded to girls from families below poverty line. 

 The scheme is being implemented in 27 States/UTs namely: Assam, Andhra Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Dadar & Nagar Haveli, Delhi, Gujarat, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Jharkhand, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Orissa, Punjab, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Tripura, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand and West Bengal.
 2578 KGBVs were sanctioned by Government of India till date. Of these, 427 KGBVs have been sanctioned in Muslim concentration blocks, 612 in ST blocks, 688 in SC blocks. As on 31st January, 2009, 2423 KGBVs are reported to be functional (i.e. 94%) in the States and 1,90,404 girls enrolled in them (50,630 SC girls (27%); 58,682 ST girls (31%); 50,161 OBC girls (26%); 18,206 BPL girls (9%); 12,725 Minority girls (7%). Out of the total 2578 sanctioned KGBVs, 547 KGBVs have been constructed + 1262 are in progress and 769 have not been started.  The Kasturba Gandhi Balika Vidyalaya scheme is merged with Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan in the XIth Plan with effect from 1st April, 2007.

National Evaluation of KGBV
          The National Evaluation of the KGBV scheme was undertaken between 29th January to 20th February 2008 in 12 States of  Gujarat, Jharkhand, Bihar, Himachal Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh and Orissa, with 12 independent experts in girls education and another joint Evaluation of NPEGEL & KGBV scheme was also undertaken between 19th November to 14th December, 2007 in States of Assam, Manipur, Chhattisgarh, Maharashtra, Haryana, Punjab, Jammu & Kashmir, Uttarakhand, Meghalaya, West Bengal, Mizoram, Tripura and Dadar & Nagar Haveli.


Change of name from Vikash to Vikash singh

Topic Other Topic
I want to change my name from Vikash to Vikash Singh on my passport.
As per passport rule: - I need to insert advertisements in two newspaper.

So wanted to know the cost of adverisement and other details to get name change article published.

Name :- Vikash

Father's Name :- Rajendra Sharma.

Address on Passport:- 
Q.No- 325, Sector -1'B'
  Bokaro Steel City, Bokaro, Jharkhand.

Current Residential Address:-
c\o- Jai Karan Chaudhary (Police)
       House No - 123,
       Bhanger Mohalla,
       Madanpur Khadar,
       New Delhi 110076

Permanent Address:
Vikash Singh
c\o- Ramjanam Singh
Village+P.O.- Sarbba,
Police Station:- Barbigha,
District.- Sheikhpura
Pin:- 811001

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) Related to Right to Information

Topic Other Topic

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) Related to Right to Information

How to use Right to Information
Why is it that RTI works when no other law has worked
What should I do if I do not receive satisfactory information
Won’t I be victimized if I used RTI
Bureaucracy’s fears
Visit For more information About Right to Information Act

Raksha Bandhan | Rakhi Festival

Topic Festivals

Raksha Bandhan or Rakhi is a festival primarily observed in North India, which celebrates the relationship between brothers and sisters.The festival is observed by Hindus, Sikhs, and Muslims. The central ceremony involves the tying of a rakhi (sacred thread) by a sister on her brother's wrist. This symbolizes the sister's love and prayers for her brother's well-being, and the brother's lifelong vow to protect her.The festival falls on the full moon day (Shravan Poornima) of the Shravan month of the Hindu lunisolar calendar.It grew in popularity after Rani Karnavati, the widowed queen of Chittor, sent a rakhi to the Mughal emperor Humayun when she required his help.

Right To Public Service Act

Topic Refrences
Government of Bihar in the process of bringing administrative reforms  have taken step forward by formulating Right To Public Service Act in order to make the government more transparent and responsive. This act will come into force from 15th August 2011.the act has been formulated for the people of Bihar especially remote and under developed areas to  give them services with ease and satisfaction.
 The salient features of this act are listed below:
  • Notified services would be given at stipulated time
  • Receipt would be provided
  • There is a provision of 2 levels of appeal in case the services are not provided in stipulated time.

Some of the services under this act are:
  • Caste/income/domicile certificate
  • Ration card
  • Pension scheme
  • Land related services
  • Driving license
  • Scholarship etc

Department & Services

  • General Administration department
  • Commercial Tax
  • Transport Department
  • Home Department
  • Social Welfare
  • Human Resource Department
  • Food & Consumer
  • Urban Development

Useful Information
Acts in Hindi/English
trainer's ppt
Check List

Kumhrar Park patna

Topic Tourist place in Bihar
 Kumhrar is the site that consists of the archaeological excavations of Patliputra and marks the ancient capital of Ajatshatru, Chandragupta and Ashoka. Excavations at Kumhrar have resulted numerous structures and artifacts of the past.
Located some six kilometers south to Patna railway station, Kumhrar can be reached by auto rickshaws which are easily available. Remnants of historical city are spread all over and remind us of great and glorious history of Kumhrar.
Located on the Kankarbagh road, Kumhrar has been excavated many times. After the excavation of the site, relics have been found, which are according to some historians are from 600 BC to 600 AD. The most striking and relevant finding at the spot is the 80-pillared huge hall, which is said to have been the parliament of Chandragupta Maurya. According to archaeologists and historians, it dates back to 300 BC.
The parliament or assembly hall was an excellent specimen of architectural expertise. From ruins one can imagine how wonderful it would have been in its original form! Near the assembly hall is a brick made Buddhist monastery, popularly called Anand Bihar.
During excavation archeologists found the marks of ‘Arogya Vihar’ which was headed by famous physician Dhanvantri. One can visit Kumhrar to experience the glorious history of Pataliputra and the Magadh Empire.



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